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Article

Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists, and Appreciative Inquiry: Development of a Novel Measurement Tool

1
Joseph Banks Laboratories, School of Pharmacy, University of Lincoln, Beevor St, Lincoln LN6 7DL, UK
2
Lincoln Medical School, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
3
School of Health and Social Care, University of Lincoln, Brayford Pool, Lincoln LN6 7TS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 798; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110798
Received: 10 October 2020 / Revised: 3 November 2020 / Accepted: 10 November 2020 / Published: 11 November 2020
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a threat to achieving the United Nation’s (UN) sustainable development goals (SDGs). The behavior of stakeholders has directly influenced the extent of AMR and understanding underpinning knowledge and attitudes is an important step towards understanding these behaviors. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a novel questionnaire, utilizing the theory of Appreciative Inquiry, to measure knowledge and attitudes around antibiotic resistance amongst community pharmacists throughout Thailand. A survey tool was developed using the Appreciative Inquiry theory, and was piloted in a non-probability sample of practicing community pharmacists. Descriptive and inferential statistics were applied and the tool validated, using a three-step psychometric validation process. A total of 373 community pharmacists participated in the study. The survey tool was found to be valid and reliable. The “Knowledge” domain of the survey tool showed an acceptable level of reliability (Cronbach’s alpha 0.64); while the “Attitude” domain showed an excellent reliability level (Cronbach’s alpha 0.84). This new survey tool has been designed to measure attitudes and knowledge of antibiotic resistance by utilizing the Discovery phase of Appreciative Inquiry theory amongst community pharmacists in Thailand. This survey tool has the potential to be used by other researchers across different settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic smart use program; antibiotic stewardship; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; Appreciative Inquiry; reliability; validity; community pharmacist antibiotic smart use program; antibiotic stewardship; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; Appreciative Inquiry; reliability; validity; community pharmacist
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MDPI and ACS Style

Netthong, R.; Ahmadi, K.; Kane, R. Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists, and Appreciative Inquiry: Development of a Novel Measurement Tool. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110798

AMA Style

Netthong R, Ahmadi K, Kane R. Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists, and Appreciative Inquiry: Development of a Novel Measurement Tool. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):798. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110798

Chicago/Turabian Style

Netthong, Rojjares, Keivan Ahmadi, and Ros Kane. 2020. "Antimicrobial Resistance, Pharmacists, and Appreciative Inquiry: Development of a Novel Measurement Tool" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 798. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110798

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