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Open AccessArticle

Origanum vulgare Essential Oil vs. a Commercial Mixture of Essential Oils: In Vitro Effectiveness on Salmonella spp. from Poultry and Swine Intensive Livestock

1
Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Agro-Alimentari, Università di Bologna, Viale G. Fanin 42, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
Dipartimento di Scienze Biotecnologiche di Base, Cliniche Intensivologiche e Perioperatorie, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
3
Dipartimento di Scienze di Laboratorio e Infettivologiche, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
4
Dipartimento di Scienze della Vita, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Via G. Campi 103, 41125 Modena, Italy
5
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Lombardia e dell’Emilia-Romagna “Bruno Ubertini”, Sede Territoriale di Forlì, Via Don E. Servadei 3E/3F, 47122 Forlì, Italy
6
Società Italiana per la Ricerca sugli Oli Essenziali (SIROE), Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antibiotics 2020, 9(11), 763; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9110763
Received: 9 October 2020 / Revised: 28 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 31 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Essential Oils)
Salmonella spp. represent a public health concern for humans and animals due to the increase of antibiotic resistances. In this scenario, the use of essential oils (EOs) could be a valid tool against Salmonella contamination of meat. This work compares the in vitro effectiveness of an Italian mixture of feed additives based on EOs (GR-OLI) with EO of Origanum vulgare L., recently admitted by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for animal use. Twenty-nine Salmonella serotypes isolated from poultry and pig farms were used to assess GR-OLI and O. vulgare EO antimicrobial propeties. O. vulgare EO was active on the disaggregation of mature biofilm, while GR-OLI was capable of inhibiting biofilm formation and disaggregating preformed biofilm. Furthermore, GR-OLI inhibited bacterial adhesion to Caco-2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Both products showed inhibition of bacterial growth at all time points tested. Finally, the synergistic action of GR-OLI with commonly used antibiotics against resistant strains was investigated. In conclusion, the mixture could be used both to reduce the meat contamination of Salmonella spp. before slaughter, and in synergy with low doses of ciprofloxacin against resistant strains. Although EOs as feed additives are already used in animal husbandry, no scientific study has ever highlighted their real antimicrobial potential. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; Origanum vulgare; ciprofloxacin; poultry farms; pig farms Salmonella; Origanum vulgare; ciprofloxacin; poultry farms; pig farms
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MDPI and ACS Style

Di Vito, M.; Cacaci, M.; Barbanti, L.; Martini, C.; Sanguinetti, M.; Benvenuti, S.; Tosi, G.; Fiorentini, L.; Scozzoli, M.; Bugli, F.; Mattarelli, P. Origanum vulgare Essential Oil vs. a Commercial Mixture of Essential Oils: In Vitro Effectiveness on Salmonella spp. from Poultry and Swine Intensive Livestock. Antibiotics 2020, 9, 763.

AMA Style

Di Vito M, Cacaci M, Barbanti L, Martini C, Sanguinetti M, Benvenuti S, Tosi G, Fiorentini L, Scozzoli M, Bugli F, Mattarelli P. Origanum vulgare Essential Oil vs. a Commercial Mixture of Essential Oils: In Vitro Effectiveness on Salmonella spp. from Poultry and Swine Intensive Livestock. Antibiotics. 2020; 9(11):763.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Di Vito, Maura; Cacaci, Margherita; Barbanti, Lorenzo; Martini, Cecilia; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Benvenuti, Stefania; Tosi, Giovanni; Fiorentini, Laura; Scozzoli, Maurizio; Bugli, Francesca; Mattarelli, Paola. 2020. "Origanum vulgare Essential Oil vs. a Commercial Mixture of Essential Oils: In Vitro Effectiveness on Salmonella spp. from Poultry and Swine Intensive Livestock" Antibiotics 9, no. 11: 763.

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