Next Article in Journal
Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Community Health Systems Perceived by Physicians and Pharmacists: A Qualitative Study with Gap Analysis
Next Article in Special Issue
The Use of Nanomedicine for Targeted Therapy against Bacterial Infections
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluation of the Antifungal Activity of the Licania Rigida Leaf Ethanolic Extract against Biofilms Formed by Candida Sp. Isolates in Acrylic Resin Discs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Host-Targeted Therapeutics against Multidrug Resistant Intracellular Staphylococcus aureus

Dissecting the Antimicrobial Composition of Honey

School of Life and Health Sciences, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham B4 7ET, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 251;
Received: 28 October 2019 / Revised: 29 November 2019 / Accepted: 3 December 2019 / Published: 5 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies against Pathogenic Bacteria)
Honey is a complex sweet food stuff with well-established antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. It has been used for millennia in a variety of applications, but the most noteworthy include the treatment of surface wounds, burns and inflammation. A variety of substances in honey have been suggested as the key component to its antimicrobial potential; polyphenolic compounds, hydrogen peroxide, methylglyoxal and bee-defensin 1. These components vary greatly across honey samples due to botanical origin, geographical location and secretions from the bee. The use of medical grade honey in the treatment of surface wounds and burns has been seen to improve the healing process, reduce healing time, reduce scarring and prevent microbial contamination. Therefore, if medical grade honeys were to be included in clinical treatment, it would reduce the demand for antibiotic usage. In this review, we outline the constituents of honey and how they affect antibiotic potential in a clinical setting. By identifying the key components, we facilitate the development of an optimally antimicrobial honey by either synthetic or semisynthetic production methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: honey; antimicrobials; methylglyoxal; hydrogen peroxide; bee-defensin 1; wound treatment honey; antimicrobials; methylglyoxal; hydrogen peroxide; bee-defensin 1; wound treatment
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nolan, V.C.; Harrison, J.; Cox, J.A.G. Dissecting the Antimicrobial Composition of Honey. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 251.

AMA Style

Nolan VC, Harrison J, Cox JAG. Dissecting the Antimicrobial Composition of Honey. Antibiotics. 2019; 8(4):251.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nolan, Victoria C., James Harrison, and Jonathan A.G. Cox. 2019. "Dissecting the Antimicrobial Composition of Honey" Antibiotics 8, no. 4: 251.

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop