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Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 7;

Antibiotic Stewardship—Twenty Years in the Making

National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, 8th Floor Commonwealth Building, Imperial College London, London W12 0HS, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 24 January 2019
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In the last 20 years, efforts were made to optimize antibiotic use in hospitals across the world as a means of addressing the increasing threat of antibiotic resistance. Despite robust evidence supporting optimal practice, antibiotic decision-making remains sub-optimal in many settings, including in hospitals. Globally, resources remain a limiting factor in the implementation of antibiotic stewardship programs. In addition, antibiotic decision-making is a social process dependent on cultural and contextual factors. Cultural boundaries in healthcare and across specialties still limit the involvement of allied healthcare professionals in stewardship interventions. There is variation in the social norms and antibiotic-prescribing behaviors between specialties in hospitals. The cultural differences between specialties and healthcare professionals (1) shape the shared knowledge within and across specialties in the patient pathway, and (2) result in variation in care, thus impacting patient outcomes. Bespoke stewardship interventions that account for contextual variation in practice are necessary. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic stewardship; culture; social science; antimicrobial resistance antibiotic stewardship; culture; social science; antimicrobial resistance
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Charani, E.; Holmes, A. Antibiotic Stewardship—Twenty Years in the Making. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 7.

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