Next Article in Journal
The Use of Tethered Bilayer Lipid Membranes to Identify the Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Peptide Interactions with Lipid Bilayers
Next Article in Special Issue
Mapping and Analysing Potential Sources and Transmission Routes of Antimicrobial Resistant Organisms in the Environment using Geographic Information Systems—An Exploratory Study
Previous Article in Journal
The Effects of Mentha × piperita Essential Oil on C. albicans Growth, Transition, Biofilm Formation, and the Expression of Secreted Aspartyl Proteinases Genes
Previous Article in Special Issue
Antibiotic Stewardship—Twenty Years in the Making
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

The State of Education and Training for Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Indian Hospitals―A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment

Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences, Amrita University, Kochi, Kerala 682041, India
NIHR Health Protection Unit in Healthcare Associated Infections and Antimicrobial Resistance, Imperial College London, London W12 OHS, UK
Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, Rajinder Nagar, New Delhi 110061, India
Fortis Healthcare, Gurgaon Haryana 122001, India
British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, Birmingham B1 3NJ, UK
Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee 9SY, Scotland, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 11;
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 23 January 2019 / Published: 30 January 2019
PDF [221 KB, uploaded 30 January 2019]


Background: To understand the role of infrastructure, manpower, and education and training (E&T) in relation to Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) in Indian healthcare organizations. Methods: Mixed method approach using quantitative survey and qualitative interviews was applied. Through key informants, healthcare professionals from 69 hospitals (public & private) were invited to participate in online survey and follow up qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was applied to identify the key emerging themes from the interviews. The survey data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: 60 healthcare professionals from 51 hospitals responded to the survey. Eight doctors participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. 69% (27/39) of the respondents received E&T on AMS during undergraduate or postgraduate training. 88% (15/17) had not received any E&T at induction or during employment. In the qualitative interviews three key areas of concern were identified: (1) need for government level endorsement of AMS activities; (2) lack of AMS programs in hospitals; and, (3) lack of postgraduate E&T in AMS for staff. Conclusion: No structured provision of E&T for AMS currently exists in India. Stakeholder engagement is essential to the sustainable design and implementation of bespoke E&T for hospital AMS in India. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic stewardship; education and training; postgraduate; antimicrobial stewardship antibiotic stewardship; education and training; postgraduate; antimicrobial stewardship
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material


Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, S.; Charani, E.; Wattal, C.; Arora, A.; Jenkins, A.; Nathwani, D. The State of Education and Training for Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs in Indian Hospitals―A Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 11.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Antibiotics EISSN 2079-6382 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top