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Open AccessArticle

Characterizing Antimicrobial Use in the Livestock Sector in Three South East Asian Countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam)

1
Epidemiology and Population Health, University of Liverpool, Neston CH64 7TE, UK
2
Center for Indonesian Veterinary Analytical Studies, Bogor 16310, Indonesia
3
FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Bangkok 10200, Thailand
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FAO Country Office for Vietnam, Hanoi, Vietnam
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National Institute of Veterinary Research, Hanoi, Vietnam
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Department of Veterinary Public Health, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
7
FAO Country Office for Indonesia, Jakarta 10250, Indonesia
8
Agricultural and Resource Economic Consulting Services, Armidale, NSW 2350, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(1), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8010033
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 5 March 2019 / Accepted: 15 March 2019 / Published: 25 March 2019
A framework was developed to characterize the antimicrobial use/antimicrobial resistance complex in livestock systems in Indonesia, Vietnam, and Thailand. Farm profitability, disease prevention, and mortality rate reduction were identified as drivers toward antimicrobial use in livestock systems. It revealed that antimicrobial use was high in all sectors studied, and that routine preventative use was of particular importance to broiler production systems. Misleading feed labeling was identified as a hurdle to the collection of accurate antimicrobial use data, with farmers being unaware of the antimicrobials contained in some commercial feed. Economic analysis found that the cost of antimicrobials was low relative to other farm inputs, and that farm profitability was precariously balanced. High disease and poor prices were identified as potential drivers toward economic loss. The research indicates that antimicrobial use in small-scale poultry production systems improves feed conversion ratios and overall productivity. However, data were limited to quantify adequately these potential gains and their impacts on the food supply. During the study, all countries embraced and implemented policies on better management of antimicrobial use in livestock and surveillance of antimicrobial resistance. Future policies need to consider farm-level economics and livestock food supply issues when developing further antimicrobial use interventions in the region. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial; antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial use; economics; Vietnam; Indonesia; Thailand; framework; policy antimicrobial; antibiotic; antimicrobial resistance; antimicrobial use; economics; Vietnam; Indonesia; Thailand; framework; policy
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Coyne, L.; Arief, R.; Benigno, C.; Giang, V.N.; Huong, L.Q.; Jeamsripong, S.; Kalpravidh, W.; McGrane, J.; Padungtod, P.; Patrick, I.; Schoonman, L.; Setyawan, E.; Harja Sukarno, A.; Srisamran, J.; Ngoc, P.T.; Rushton, J. Characterizing Antimicrobial Use in the Livestock Sector in Three South East Asian Countries (Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam). Antibiotics 2019, 8, 33.

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