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Article

Evaluation of the Correspondence between the Concentration of Antimicrobials Entering Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and the Predicted Concentration of Antimicrobials Using Annual Sales, Shipping, and Prescriptions Data

1
Department of Environment and Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Takatsuki 569-1094, Japan
2
Department of Microbiology and Infection Control, Faculty of Medicine, Osaka Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Takatsuki 569-8686, Japan
3
AMR Clinical Reference Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan
4
Disease Control and Prevention Center, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655, Japan
5
Department of Food and Nutrition Management Studies, Faculty of Human Development, Soai University, Osaka 559-0033, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuela Oliveira
Antibiotics 2022, 11(4), 472; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040472
Received: 9 March 2022 / Revised: 28 March 2022 / Accepted: 30 March 2022 / Published: 1 April 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment)
The accuracy and correspondence between the measured concentrations from the survey and predicted concentrations on the basis of the three types of statistical antimicrobial use in Japan was evaluated. A monitoring survey of ten representative antimicrobials: ampicillin (APL), cefdinir (CDN), cefpodoxime proxetil (CPXP), ciprofloxacin (CFX), clarithromycin (CTM), doxycycline (DCL), levofloxacin (LFX), minocycline (MCL), tetracycline (TCL), and vancomycin (VMC), in the influent of sewage treatment plant (STP) located in urban areas of Japan, was conducted. Then, the measured values were verified in comparison with the predicted values estimated from the shipping volumes, sales volumes, and prescription volumes based on the National Database of Health Insurance Claims and Specific Health Checkups of Japan (NDB). The results indicate that the correspondence ratios between the predicted concentrations calculated on the basis of shipping and NDB volumes and the measured concentrations (predicted concentration/measured concentration) generally agreed for the detected concentration of antimicrobials in the STP influent. The correspondence ratio on the basis of shipping volume was, for CFX, 0.1; CTM, 2.9; LFX, 0.5; MCL, 1.9; and VMC, 1.7, and on the basis of NDB volume the measured concentration was CFX, 0.1; CTM, 3.7; DCL, 0.4; LFX, 0.7; MCL, 1.9; TCL, 0.6; and VMC, 1.6. To our knowledge, this is the first report to evaluate the accuracy of predicted concentrations based on sales, shipping, NDB statistics and measured concentrations for antimicrobials in the STP influent. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobials; sewage influent; wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); predicted environmental concentration; national database of health insurance claims and specific health checkups of Japan (NDB) antimicrobials; sewage influent; wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); predicted environmental concentration; national database of health insurance claims and specific health checkups of Japan (NDB)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azuma, T.; Nakano, T.; Koizumi, R.; Matsunaga, N.; Ohmagari, N.; Hayashi, T. Evaluation of the Correspondence between the Concentration of Antimicrobials Entering Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and the Predicted Concentration of Antimicrobials Using Annual Sales, Shipping, and Prescriptions Data. Antibiotics 2022, 11, 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040472

AMA Style

Azuma T, Nakano T, Koizumi R, Matsunaga N, Ohmagari N, Hayashi T. Evaluation of the Correspondence between the Concentration of Antimicrobials Entering Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and the Predicted Concentration of Antimicrobials Using Annual Sales, Shipping, and Prescriptions Data. Antibiotics. 2022; 11(4):472. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040472

Chicago/Turabian Style

Azuma, Takashi, Takashi Nakano, Ryuji Koizumi, Nobuaki Matsunaga, Norio Ohmagari, and Tetsuya Hayashi. 2022. "Evaluation of the Correspondence between the Concentration of Antimicrobials Entering Sewage Treatment Plant Influent and the Predicted Concentration of Antimicrobials Using Annual Sales, Shipping, and Prescriptions Data" Antibiotics 11, no. 4: 472. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics11040472

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