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Article

Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Novel Risk Factor for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection

1
School of Medicine, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
University Hospital for Infectious Diseases, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Guido Granata
Antibiotics 2021, 10(7), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070780
Received: 14 May 2021 / Revised: 23 June 2021 / Accepted: 25 June 2021 / Published: 27 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Clostridioides difficile Infection)
Recurrent Clostridioides difficile infections (rCDI) have a substantial impact on healthcare systems, with limited and often expensive therapeutic options. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects about 25% of the adult population and is associated with metabolic syndrome, changes in gut microbiome and bile acids biosynthesis, all possibly related with rCDI. The aim of this study was to determine whether NAFLD is a risk factor associated with rCDI. A retrospective cohort study included patients ≥ 60 years hospitalized with CDI. The cohort was divided into two groups: those who were and were not readmitted with CDI within 3 months of discharge. Of the 329 patients included, 107 patients (32.5%) experienced rCDI. Patients with rCDI were older, had higher Charlson Age–Comorbidity Index (CACI) and were more frequently hospitalized within 3 months. Except for chronic kidney disease and NAFLD, which were more frequent in the rCDI group, there were no differences in other comorbidities, antibiotic classes used and duration of antimicrobial therapy. Multivariable Cox regression analysis showed that age >75 years, NAFLD, CACI >6, chronic kidney disease, statins and immobility were associated with rCDI. In conclusion, our study identified NAFLD as a possible new host-related risk factor associated with rCDI. View Full-Text
Keywords: Clostridioides difficile associated disease; CDI; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; NASH; recurrent disease Clostridioides difficile associated disease; CDI; nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NAFLD; NASH; recurrent disease
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MDPI and ACS Style

Šamadan, L.; Jeličić, M.; Vince, A.; Papić, N. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Novel Risk Factor for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 780. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070780

AMA Style

Šamadan L, Jeličić M, Vince A, Papić N. Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Novel Risk Factor for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(7):780. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070780

Chicago/Turabian Style

Šamadan, Lara, Mia Jeličić, Adriana Vince, and Neven Papić. 2021. "Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease—A Novel Risk Factor for Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Infection" Antibiotics 10, no. 7: 780. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10070780

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