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Staphylococcal Biofilms: Challenges and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives

Faculty of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, The Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway
Department of Technology and Biotechnology of Dairy Products, Dairy Research Institute of Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), 33300 Villaviciosa, Spain
DairySafe Group, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Principado de Asturias (ISPA), 33011 Oviedo, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editor: Carlos M. Franco
Antibiotics 2021, 10(2), 131;
Received: 5 January 2021 / Revised: 21 January 2021 / Accepted: 27 January 2021 / Published: 29 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Antimicrobials and Alternatives to Antimicrobials)
Staphylococci, like Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis, are common colonizers of the human microbiota. While being harmless in many cases, many virulence factors result in them being opportunistic pathogens and one of the major causes of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. One of these virulence factors is the ability to form biofilms—three-dimensional communities of microorganisms embedded in an extracellular polymeric matrix (EPS). The EPS is composed of polysaccharides, proteins and extracellular DNA, and is finely regulated in response to environmental conditions. This structured environment protects the embedded bacteria from the human immune system and decreases their susceptibility to antimicrobials, making infections caused by staphylococci particularly difficult to treat. With the rise of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci, together with difficulty in removing biofilms, there is a great need for new treatment strategies. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of our current knowledge of the stages of biofilm development and what difficulties may arise when trying to eradicate staphylococcal biofilms. Furthermore, we look into promising targets and therapeutic methods, including bacteriocins and phage-derived antibiofilm approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: S. aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci; biofilm; bacteriocins; bacteriophages; antibiotics S. aureus; coagulase-negative staphylococci; biofilm; bacteriocins; bacteriophages; antibiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kranjec, C.; Morales Angeles, D.; Torrissen Mårli, M.; Fernández, L.; García, P.; Kjos, M.; Diep, D.B. Staphylococcal Biofilms: Challenges and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 131.

AMA Style

Kranjec C, Morales Angeles D, Torrissen Mårli M, Fernández L, García P, Kjos M, Diep DB. Staphylococcal Biofilms: Challenges and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(2):131.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kranjec, Christian; Morales Angeles, Danae; Torrissen Mårli, Marita; Fernández, Lucía; García, Pilar; Kjos, Morten; Diep, Dzung B. 2021. "Staphylococcal Biofilms: Challenges and Novel Therapeutic Perspectives" Antibiotics 10, no. 2: 131.

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