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Biosensors 2019, 9(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9010016

Ultrathin Functional Polymer Modified Graphene for Enhanced Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing

1
Systems and Process Engineering Centre (SPEC), Centre for NanoHealth, College of Engineering, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
2
Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Technology & Systems (Chongqing University), Ministry of Education, Chongqing 400044, China
3
Centre for Intelligent Sensing Technology, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
4
Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Swansea University, Swansea SA2 8PP, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 15 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzymatic Electrochemical Biosensors)
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Abstract

Grafting thin polymer layers on graphene enables coupling target biomolecules to graphene surfaces, especially through amide and aldehyde linkages with carboxylic acid and primary amine derivatives, respectively. However, functionalizing monolayer graphene with thin polymer layers without affecting their exceptional electrical properties remains challenging. Herein, we demonstrate the controlled modification of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown single layer graphene with ultrathin polymer 1,5-diaminonaphthalene (DAN) layers using the electropolymerization technique. It is observed that the controlled electropolymerization of DAN monomer offers continuous polymer layers with thickness ranging between 5–25 nm. The surface characteristics of pure and polymer modified graphene was examined. As anticipated, the number of surface amine groups increases with increases in the layer thickness. The effects of polymer thickness on the electron transfer rates were studied in detail and a simple route for the estimation of surface coverage of amine groups was demonstrated using the electrochemical analysis. The implications of grafting ultrathin polymer layers on graphene towards horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme immobilization and enzymatic electrochemical sensing of H2O2 were discussed elaborately. View Full-Text
Keywords: graphene; enzyme immobilization; functional polymers; electropolymerization; bio electrochemistry; electrochemical sensing; glucose biosensor; biofunctionalization graphene; enzyme immobilization; functional polymers; electropolymerization; bio electrochemistry; electrochemical sensing; glucose biosensor; biofunctionalization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Devadoss, A.; Forsyth, R.; Bigham, R.; Abbasi, H.; Ali, M.; Tehrani, Z.; Liu, Y.; Guy, O.J. Ultrathin Functional Polymer Modified Graphene for Enhanced Enzymatic Electrochemical Sensing. Biosensors 2019, 9, 16.

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