Next Article in Journal
Photoplethysmography and Deep Learning: Enhancing Hypertension Risk Stratification
Next Article in Special Issue
Applications of Nanomaterials for Immunosensing
Previous Article in Journal
Red-Shifted FRET Biosensors for High-Throughput Fluorescence Lifetime Screening
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 100;

Advanced Nanoscale Approaches to Single-(Bio)entity Sensing and Imaging

REQUIMTE/LAQV, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal
Department of Chemical Engineering, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100-44 Stockholm, Sweden
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 26 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Nanomaterials for Biosensing and Bioimaging)
Full-Text   |   PDF [4542 KB, uploaded 26 October 2018]   |  


Individual (bio)chemical entities could show a very heterogeneous behaviour under the same conditions that could be relevant in many biological processes of significance in the life sciences. Conventional detection approaches are only able to detect the average response of an ensemble of entities and assume that all entities are identical. From this perspective, important information about the heterogeneities or rare (stochastic) events happening in individual entities would remain unseen. Some nanoscale tools present interesting physicochemical properties that enable the possibility to detect systems at the single-entity level, acquiring richer information than conventional methods. In this review, we introduce the foundations and the latest advances of several nanoscale approaches to sensing and imaging individual (bio)entities using nanoprobes, nanopores, nanoimpacts, nanoplasmonics and nanomachines. Several (bio)entities such as cells, proteins, nucleic acids, vesicles and viruses are specifically considered. These nanoscale approaches provide a wide and complete toolbox for the study of many biological systems at the single-entity level. View Full-Text
Keywords: single-entity; single-molecule; single-cell; nanoprobes; nanopores; nanoimpacts; nanoplasmonics; nanomachines single-entity; single-molecule; single-cell; nanoprobes; nanopores; nanoimpacts; nanoplasmonics; nanomachines

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Neves, M.M.P.S.; Martín-Yerga, D. Advanced Nanoscale Approaches to Single-(Bio)entity Sensing and Imaging. Biosensors 2018, 8, 100.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Biosensors EISSN 2079-6374 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top