Herein we report the electropolymerization of a scopoletin based molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) for the detection of lysozyme (Lyz), an enzymatic marker of several diseases in mammalian species. Two different approaches have been used for the imprinting of lysozyme based, respectively, on the use of a monomer-template mixture and on the covalent immobilization of the enzyme prior to polymer synthesis. In the latter case, a multi-step protocol has been exploited with preliminary functionalization of gold electrode with amino groups, via 4-aminothiophenol, followed by reaction with glutaraldehyde, to provide a suitable linker for lysozyme. Each step of surface electrode modification has been followed by cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, which has been also employed to test the electrochemical responses of the developed MIP. The sensors show good selectivity to Lyz and detect the enzyme at concentrations up to 292 mg/L (20 μM), but with different performances, depending on the used imprinting approach. An imprinting factor equal to 7.1 and 2.5 and a limit of detection of 0.9 mg/L (62 nM) and 2.1 mg/L (141 nM) have been estimated for MIPs prepared with and without enzyme immobilization, respectively. Competitive rebinding experiment results show that this sensing material is selective for Lyz determination. Tests were performed using synthetic saliva to evaluate the potential application of the sensors in real matrices for clinical purposes.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited