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Open AccessArticle

Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles Based Sensor for Cocaine Detection

1
Advanced Diagnostics and Sensors Group, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
2
School of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(3), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10030022
Received: 30 January 2020 / Revised: 26 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 4 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) Biosensors)
The development of a sensor based on molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nanoMIPs) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) for the detection of trace levels of cocaine is described in this paper. NanoMIPs for cocaine detection, synthesized using a solid phase, were applied as the sensing element. The nanoMIPs were first characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Dynamic Light Scattering and found to be ~148.35 ± 24.69 nm in size, using TEM. The nanoMIPs were then covalently attached to gold screen-printed electrodes and a cocaine direct binding assay was developed and optimized, using EIS as the sensing principle. EIS was recorded at a potential of 0.12 V over the frequency range from 0.1 Hz to 50 kHz, with a modulation voltage of 10 mV. The nanoMIPs sensor was able to detect cocaine in a linear range between 100 pg mL−1 and 50 ng mL−1 (R2 = 0.984; p-value = 0.00001) and with a limit of detection of 0.24 ng mL−1 (0.70 nM). The sensor showed no cross-reactivity toward morphine and a negligible response toward levamisole after optimizing the sensor surface blocking and assay conditions. The developed sensor has the potential to offer a highly sensitive, portable and cost-effective method for cocaine detection. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocaine; drugs of abuse; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles; EIS sensor cocaine; drugs of abuse; electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; molecularly imprinted polymer nanoparticles; EIS sensor
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MDPI and ACS Style

D’Aurelio, R.; Chianella, I.; Goode, J.A.; Tothill, I.E. Molecularly Imprinted Nanoparticles Based Sensor for Cocaine Detection. Biosensors 2020, 10, 22.

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