Fecal Volatile Organic Compound Profiles are Not Influenced by Gestational Age and Mode of Delivery: A Longitudinal Multicenter Cohort Study
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Máxima Medical Center, 5504 DB Veldhoven, The Netherlands
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospitals Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Amsterdam UMC, Academic Medical Center, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Wilhelmina Children’s Hospital/University Medical Center Utrecht, 3508 AB Utrecht, The Netherlands
Biostatistics Unit, Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI), 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Tytgat Institute for Liver and Intestinal Research, Amsterdam Gastroenterology & Metabolism, 1105 BK Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam Gastroenterology and Metabolism Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, VU University Medical Center, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally to this article.
Biosensors 2020, 10(5), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10050050
Received: 3 April 2020 / Revised: 6 May 2020 / Accepted: 8 May 2020 / Published: 11 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Noninvasive Early Disease Diagnosis)
Fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) reflect human and gut microbiota metabolic pathways and their interaction. VOC behold potential as non-invasive preclinical diagnostic biomarkers in various diseases, e.g., necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. There is a need for standardization and assessment of the influence of clinical and environmental factors on the VOC outcome before this technique can be applied in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gestational age (GA) and mode of delivery on the fecal VOC pattern in preterm infants born below 30 weeks of gestation. Longitudinal fecal samples, collected on days 7, 14, and 21 postnatally, were analyzed by an electronic nose device (Cyranose 320®). In total, 58 preterm infants were included (29 infants born at GA 24–26 weeks vs. 29 at 27–29 completed weeks, 24 vaginally born vs. 34 via C-section). No differences were identified at any predefined time point in terms of GA and delivery mode (p > 0.05). We, therefore, concluded that correction for these factors in this population is not warranted when performing fecal VOC analysis in the first three weeks of life.