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Open AccessArticle

Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity and Release from Newly Formed PMMA–ZnO Nanocomposites Designed for Denture Bases

1
Department of Prosthodontics, Medical University of Warsaw, 02-006 Warsaw, Poland
2
Institute of High Pressure Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, 01-142 Warsaw, Poland
3
Department of Applied Microbiology, Biological and Chemical Research Centre, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, 02-089 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1318; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091318
Received: 13 August 2019 / Revised: 9 September 2019 / Accepted: 11 September 2019 / Published: 15 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology in Dentistry)
The goal of the study was to investigate the level of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) release from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)–ZnO nanocomposites (2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% w/w), as well as from the ZnO NPs layer produced on pure PMMA, and the impact of the achieved final ZnO NPs concentration on cytotoxicity, before the potential use as an alternative material for denture bases. The concentration of ZnO nanoparticles released to the aqueous solution of Zn2+ ions was assessed using optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP-OES). In the control group (pure PMMA), the released mean for ZnO was 0.074 mg/L and for individual nanocomposites at concentrations of 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% was 2.281 mg/L, 2.143 mg/L, and 3.512 mg/L, respectively. The median for the ZnO NPs layer produced on PMMA was 4.878 mg/L. In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity of ZnO NPs against the human HeLa cell line was determined through the reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) dye. The cytotoxicity studies demonstrate that ZnO nanoparticles in the concentrations up to 20 mg/L have no adverse effect on HeLa cells. When compared with the released and cytotoxic concentrations of ZnO NPs, it can be expected that ZnO released from dental prostheses to the oral cavity environment will have no cytotoxic effect on host cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: denture bases; nanocomposites; poly(methyl methacrylate); zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs); cytotoxicity; ZnO NPs release denture bases; nanocomposites; poly(methyl methacrylate); zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs); cytotoxicity; ZnO NPs release
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Cierech, M.; Wojnarowicz, J.; Kolenda, A.; Krawczyk-Balska, A.; Prochwicz, E.; Woźniak, B.; Łojkowski, W.; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, E. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Cytotoxicity and Release from Newly Formed PMMA–ZnO Nanocomposites Designed for Denture Bases. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1318.

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