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Towards the Extraction of Radioactive Cesium-137 from Water via Graphene/CNT and Nanostructured Prussian Blue Hybrid Nanocomposites: A Review

Institute of Technology, Estonian University of Life Sciences, Kreutzwaldi 56/1, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(5), 682; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9050682
Received: 5 April 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 2 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Application and Behavior of Nanomaterials in Water Treatment)
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Abstract

Cesium is a radioactive fission product generated in nuclear power plants and is disposed of as liquid waste. The recent catastrophe at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant in Japan has increased the 137Cs and 134Cs concentrations in air, soil and water to lethal levels. 137Cs has a half-life of 30.4 years, while the half-life of 134Cs is around two years, therefore the formers’ detrimental effects linger for a longer period. In addition, cesium is easily transported through water bodies making water contamination an urgent issue to address. Presently, efficient water remediation methods towards the extraction of 137Cs are being studied. Prussian blue (PB) and its analogs have shown very high efficiencies in the capture of 137Cs+ ions. In addition, combining them with magnetic nanoparticles such as Fe3O4 allows their recovery via magnetic extraction once exhausted. Graphene and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are the new generation carbon allotropes that possess high specific surface areas. Moreover, the possibility to functionalize them with organic or inorganic materials opens new avenues in water treatment. The combination of PB-CNT/Graphene has shown enhanced 137Cs+ extraction and their possible applications as membranes can be envisaged. This review will survey these nanocomposites, their efficiency in 137Cs+ extraction, their possible toxicity, and prospects in large-scale water remediation and succinctly survey other new developments in 137Cs+ extraction. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbon nanotubes; graphene; Prussian blue; 137-Cesium; water remediation; magnetic extraction; 137Cs+ selectivity; radioactive contamination carbon nanotubes; graphene; Prussian blue; 137-Cesium; water remediation; magnetic extraction; 137Cs+ selectivity; radioactive contamination
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Rauwel, P.; Rauwel, E. Towards the Extraction of Radioactive Cesium-137 from Water via Graphene/CNT and Nanostructured Prussian Blue Hybrid Nanocomposites: A Review. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 682.

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