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Versatile Application of Nanocellulose: From Industry to Skin Tissue Engineering and Wound Healing

1
Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Prague 4-Krc, Czech Republic
2
BioMediTech Institute and Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Korkeakoulunkatu 3, 33720 Tampere, Finland
3
Department of Solid State Engineering, University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technicka 5, 166 28 Prague 6-Dejvice, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020164
Received: 12 December 2018 / Revised: 8 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 29 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
Nanocellulose is cellulose in the form of nanostructures, i.e., features not exceeding 100 nm at least in one dimension. These nanostructures include nanofibrils, found in bacterial cellulose; nanofibers, present particularly in electrospun matrices; and nanowhiskers, nanocrystals, nanorods, and nanoballs. These structures can be further assembled into bigger two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) nano-, micro-, and macro-structures, such as nanoplatelets, membranes, films, microparticles, and porous macroscopic matrices. There are four main sources of nanocellulose: bacteria (Gluconacetobacter), plants (trees, shrubs, herbs), algae (Cladophora), and animals (Tunicata). Nanocellulose has emerged for a wide range of industrial, technology, and biomedical applications, namely for adsorption, ultrafiltration, packaging, conservation of historical artifacts, thermal insulation and fire retardation, energy extraction and storage, acoustics, sensorics, controlled drug delivery, and particularly for tissue engineering. Nanocellulose is promising for use in scaffolds for engineering of blood vessels, neural tissue, bone, cartilage, liver, adipose tissue, urethra and dura mater, for repairing connective tissue and congenital heart defects, and for constructing contact lenses and protective barriers. This review is focused on applications of nanocellulose in skin tissue engineering and wound healing as a scaffold for cell growth, for delivering cells into wounds, and as a material for advanced wound dressings coupled with drug delivery, transparency and sensorics. Potential cytotoxicity and immunogenicity of nanocellulose are also discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial nanocellulose; nanofibrillated cellulose; animal nanocellulose; algal nanocellulose; tissue engineering; tissue repair; wound dressing; cell delivery; drug delivery; antimicrobial properties bacterial nanocellulose; nanofibrillated cellulose; animal nanocellulose; algal nanocellulose; tissue engineering; tissue repair; wound dressing; cell delivery; drug delivery; antimicrobial properties
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bacakova, L.; Pajorova, J.; Bacakova, M.; Skogberg, A.; Kallio, P.; Kolarova, K.; Svorcik, V. Versatile Application of Nanocellulose: From Industry to Skin Tissue Engineering and Wound Healing. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 164.

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