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Open AccessArticle

Rapid Water Softening with TEMPO-Oxidized/Phosphorylated Nanopapers

1
Polymer & Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Institute of Materials Chemistry & Research, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
2
Polymer & Composite Engineering (PaCE) Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, UK
3
Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla 90110, Thailand
4
Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria
5
Institute for Engineering Materials and Design, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(2), 136; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9020136
Received: 14 December 2018 / Revised: 15 January 2019 / Accepted: 17 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cellulose Nanomaterials)
Water hardness not only constitutes a significant hazard for the functionality of water infrastructure but is also associated with health concerns. Commonly, water hardness is tackled with synthetic ion-exchange resins or membranes that have the drawbacks of requiring the awkward disposal of saturated materials and being based on fossil resources. In this work, we present a renewable nanopaper for the purpose of water softening prepared from phosphorylated TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibrils (PT-CNF). Nanopapers were prepared from CNF suspensions in water (PT-CNF nanopapers) or low surface tension organic liquids (ethanol), named EPT-CNF nanopapers, respectively. Nanopaper preparation from ethanol resulted in a significantly increased porosity of the nanopapers enabling much higher permeances: more than 10,000× higher as compared to nanopapers from aqueous suspensions. The adsorption capacity for Ca2+ of nanopapers from aqueous suspensions was 17 mg g−1 and 5 mg g−1 for Mg2+; however, EPT-CNF nanopapers adsorbed more than 90 mg g−1 Ca2+ and almost 70 mg g−1 Mg2+. The higher adsorption capacity was a result of the increased accessibility of functional groups in the bulk of the nanopapers caused by the higher porosity of nanopapers prepared from ethanol. The combination of very high permeance and adsorption capacity constitutes a high overall performance of these nanopapers in water softening applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: water hardness; nanocellulose; TEMPO-oxidation; phosphorylation; nanopaper; membrane water hardness; nanocellulose; TEMPO-oxidation; phosphorylation; nanopaper; membrane
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Mautner, A.; Kobkeatthawin, T.; Mayer, F.; Plessl, C.; Gorgieva, S.; Kokol, V.; Bismarck, A. Rapid Water Softening with TEMPO-Oxidized/Phosphorylated Nanopapers. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 136.

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