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Open AccessArticle

First Generation Amperometric Biosensing of Galactose with Xerogel-Carbon Nanotube Layer-By-Layer Assemblies

1
Department of Chemistry, 138 UR Drive, Gottwald Center for the Sciences, University of Richmond, Richmond, VA 23173, USA
2
Department of Biology, Chemistry, and Physics, Converse College, Spartanburg, SC 29302, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9010042
Received: 7 December 2018 / Revised: 22 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
A first-generation amperometric galactose biosensor has been systematically developed utilizing layer-by-layer (LbL) construction of xerogels, polymers, and carbon nanotubes toward a greater fundamental understanding of sensor design with these materials and the potential development of a more efficient galactosemia diagnostic tool for clinical application. The effect of several parameters (xerogel silane precursor, buffer pH, enzyme concentration, drying time and the inclusion of a polyurethane (PU) outer layer) on galactose sensitivity were investigated with the critical nature of xerogel selection being demonstrated. Xerogels formed from silanes with medium, aliphatic side chains were shown to exhibit significant enhancements in sensitivity with the addition of PU due to decreased enzyme leaching. Semi-permeable membranes of diaminobenzene and resorcinol copolymer and Nafion were used for selective discrimination against interferent species and the accompanying loss of sensitivity with adding layers was countered using functionalized, single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Optimized sensor performance included effective galactose sensitivity (0.037 μA/mM) across a useful diagnostic concentration range (0.5 mM to 7 mM), fast response time (~30 s), and low limits of detection (~80 μM) comparable to literature reports on galactose sensors. Additional modification with anionic polymer layers and/or nanoparticles allowed for galactose detection in blood serum samples and additional selectivity effectiveness. View Full-Text
Keywords: galactose; 1st generation biosensor; xerogel; carbon nanotube; amperometric sensor; galactose oxidase; galactosemia galactose; 1st generation biosensor; xerogel; carbon nanotube; amperometric sensor; galactose oxidase; galactosemia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Labban, N.; Wayu, M.B.; Steele, C.M.; Munoz, T.S.; Pollock, J.A.; Case, W.S.; Leopold, M.C. First Generation Amperometric Biosensing of Galactose with Xerogel-Carbon Nanotube Layer-By-Layer Assemblies. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 42.

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