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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(6), 398; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8060398

Pulse-Modulated Radio-Frequency Alternating-Current-Driven Atmospheric-Pressure Glow Discharge for Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity toward Human Melanoma Cells

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Metallurgy, Faculty of Chemistry, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze St. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
2
Laboratory of Biology of Stem and Neoplastic Cells, Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy Polish Academy of Science, R. Weigla 12, 53-114 Wroclaw, Poland
3
Department of Biology, University of Florence, via Madonna del Piano 6, 50017 Sesto Fiorentino, Italy
4
Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze St. Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 May 2018 / Revised: 29 May 2018 / Accepted: 30 May 2018 / Published: 2 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasma based Synthesis and Modification of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

An innovative and environmentally friendly method for the synthesis of size-controlled silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is presented. Pectin-stabilized AgNPs were synthesized in a plasma-reaction system in which pulse-modulated radio-frequency atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (pm-rf-APGD) was operated in contact with a flowing liquid electrode. The use of pm-rf-APGD allows for better control of the size of AgNPs and their stability and monodispersity. AgNPs synthesized under defined operating conditions exhibited average sizes of 41.62 ± 12.08 nm and 10.38 ± 4.56 nm, as determined by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), respectively. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) confirmed that the nanoparticles were composed of metallic Ag. Furthermore, the ξ-potential of the AgNPs was shown to be −43.11 ± 0.96 mV, which will facilitate their application in biological systems. Between 70% and 90% of the cancerous cells of the human melanoma Hs 294T cell line underwent necrosis following treatment with the synthesized AgNPs. Furthermore, optical emission spectrometry (OES) identified reactive species, such as NO, NH, N2, O, and H, as pm-rf-APGD produced compounds that may be involved in the reduction of the Ag(I) ions. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold atmospheric-pressure plasma; nanostructures; necrosis cold atmospheric-pressure plasma; nanostructures; necrosis
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Dzimitrowicz, A.; Bielawska-Pohl, A.; diCenzo, G.C.; Jamroz, P.; Macioszczyk, J.; Klimczak, A.; Pohl, P. Pulse-Modulated Radio-Frequency Alternating-Current-Driven Atmospheric-Pressure Glow Discharge for Continuous-Flow Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Evaluation of Their Cytotoxicity toward Human Melanoma Cells. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 398.

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