Gold nanocrystals have attracted considerable attention due to their excellent physical and chemical properties and their extensive applications in plasmonics, spectroscopy, biological detection, and nanoelectronics. Gold nanoparticles are able to be readily modified and arranged with DNA materials and protein molecules, as well as viruses. Particularly DNA materials with the advantages endowed by programmability, stability, specificity, and the capability to adapt to functionalization, have become the most promising candidates that are widely utilized for building plenty of discrete gold nanoarchitectures. This review highlights recent advances on the DNA-based assembly of gold nanostructures and especially emphasizes their resulted superior optical properties and principles, including plasmonic extinction, plasmonic chirality, surface enhanced fluorescence (SEF), and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS).
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