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Review

Scaffold Structural Microenvironmental Cues to Guide Tissue Regeneration in Bone Tissue Applications

1
National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064, China
2
Scholl of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, The University of Hongkong, Pokfulam, Hongkong 999077, China
4
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588-0526, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2018, 8(11), 960; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110960
Received: 19 October 2018 / Revised: 15 November 2018 / Accepted: 17 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoscale Materials and Technologies in Tissue Engineering)
In the process of bone regeneration, new bone formation is largely affected by physico-chemical cues in the surrounding microenvironment. Tissue cells reside in a complex scaffold physiological microenvironment. The scaffold should provide certain circumstance full of structural cues to enhance multipotent mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation, osteoblast growth, extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition, and subsequent new bone formation. This article reviewed advances in fabrication technology that enable the creation of biomaterials with well-defined pore structure and surface topography, which can be sensed by host tissue cells (esp., stem cells) and subsequently determine cell fates during differentiation. Three important cues, including scaffold pore structure (i.e., porosity and pore size), grain size, and surface topography were studied. These findings improve our understanding of how the mechanism scaffold microenvironmental cues guide bone tissue regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: structural microenvironmental cues; porosity; grain size; surface topography; bone tissue regeneration structural microenvironmental cues; porosity; grain size; surface topography; bone tissue regeneration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chen, X.; Fan, H.; Deng, X.; Wu, L.; Yi, T.; Gu, L.; Zhou, C.; Fan, Y.; Zhang, X. Scaffold Structural Microenvironmental Cues to Guide Tissue Regeneration in Bone Tissue Applications. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 960. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110960

AMA Style

Chen X, Fan H, Deng X, Wu L, Yi T, Gu L, Zhou C, Fan Y, Zhang X. Scaffold Structural Microenvironmental Cues to Guide Tissue Regeneration in Bone Tissue Applications. Nanomaterials. 2018; 8(11):960. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110960

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chen, Xuening, Hongyuan Fan, Xiaowei Deng, Lina Wu, Tao Yi, Linxia Gu, Changchun Zhou, Yujiang Fan, and Xingdong Zhang. 2018. "Scaffold Structural Microenvironmental Cues to Guide Tissue Regeneration in Bone Tissue Applications" Nanomaterials 8, no. 11: 960. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8110960

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