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Article

Optimization Method of the Solvothermal Parameters Using Box–Behnken Experimental Design—The Case Study of ZnO Structural and Catalytic Tailoring

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Research Group of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Szeged, Tisza Lajos krt. 103, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
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Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, Str. Mihail Kogălniceanu 1, RO-400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Department of Applied and Environmental Chemistry, University of Szeged, Rerrich tér 1, H-6720 Szeged, Hungary
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Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 113, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babeș-Bolyai University, Str. Arany János 11, RO-400028 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Centre of Nanostructured Materials and Bio-Nano Interfaces, Institute for Interdisciplinary Research on Bio-Nano-Sciences, Treboniu Laurian 42, RO-400271 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Institute of Physical Metallurgy, Metal Forming and Nanotechnology, University of Miskolc, HU-3515 Miskolc-Egyetemváros, Hungary
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nikos Boukos
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(5), 1334; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051334
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 11 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 19 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Latest Developments in Photocatalytic Materials and Processes)
ZnO photocatalysts were synthesized via solvothermal method and a reduced experimental design (Box–Behnken) was applied to investigate the influence of four parameters (temperature, duration, composition of the reaction mixture) upon the photocatalytic activity and the crystal structure of ZnO. The four parameters were correlated with photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange and the ratio of two crystallographic facets ((002) and (100)) using a quadratic model. The quadratic model shows good fit for both responses. The optimization experimental results validated the models. The ratio of the crystal facets shows similar variation as the photocatalytic activity of the samples. The water content of the solvent is the primary factor, which predominantly influence both responses. An explanation was proposed for the effect of the parameters and how the ratio of (002) and (100) crystal facets is influenced and its relation to the photocatalytic activity. The present research laconically describes a case study for an original experimental work, in order to serve as guideline to deal with such complicated subjects as quantifying influence of synthesis parameters upon the catalytic activity of the obtained ZnO. View Full-Text
Keywords: Box–Behnken design (BBD), ZnO; photocatalysis; solvothermal crystallization; optimization Box–Behnken design (BBD), ZnO; photocatalysis; solvothermal crystallization; optimization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kovács, Z.; Molnár, C.; Štangar, U.L.; Cristea, V.-M.; Pap, Z.; Hernadi, K.; Baia, L. Optimization Method of the Solvothermal Parameters Using Box–Behnken Experimental Design—The Case Study of ZnO Structural and Catalytic Tailoring. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051334

AMA Style

Kovács Z, Molnár C, Štangar UL, Cristea V-M, Pap Z, Hernadi K, Baia L. Optimization Method of the Solvothermal Parameters Using Box–Behnken Experimental Design—The Case Study of ZnO Structural and Catalytic Tailoring. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(5):1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051334

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kovács, Zoltán, Csanád Molnár, Urška L. Štangar, Vasile-Mircea Cristea, Zsolt Pap, Klara Hernadi, and Lucian Baia. 2021. "Optimization Method of the Solvothermal Parameters Using Box–Behnken Experimental Design—The Case Study of ZnO Structural and Catalytic Tailoring" Nanomaterials 11, no. 5: 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11051334

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