Nanomaterials science is becoming the foundation stone of high-frequency applications. The downscaling of electronic devices and components allows shrinking chip’s dimensions at a more-than-Moore rate. Many theoretical limits and manufacturing constraints are yet to be taken into account. A promising path towards nanoelectronics is represented by atomic-scale materials. In this manuscript, we offer a perspective on a specific class of devices, namely switches designed and fabricated using two-dimensional or nanoscale materials, like graphene, molybdenum disulphide, hexagonal boron nitride and ultra-thin oxides for high-frequency applications. An overview is provided about three main types of microwave and millimeter-wave switch: filament memristors, nano-ionic memristors and ferroelectric junctions. The physical principles that govern each switch are presented, together with advantages and disadvantages. In the last part we focus on zirconium-doped hafnium oxide ferroelectrics (HfZrO) tunneling junctions (FTJ), which are likely to boost the research in the domain of atomic-scale materials applied in engineering sciences. Thanks to their Complementary Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatibility and low-voltage tunability (among other unique physical properties), HfZrO compounds have the potential for large-scale applicability. As a practical case of study, we present a 10 GHz transceiver in which the switches are FTJs, which guarantee excellent isolation and ultra-fast switching time.
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