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Impact of Microplastics and Nanoplastics on Human Health

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Centre of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus, Jalan Broga, Semenyih 43500, Malaysia
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Center for Cancer and Stem Cell Research, Institute for Research, Development and Innovation (IRDI), International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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School of Postgraduate Studies, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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School of Pharmacy, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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Center for Environmental and Population Health, Institute for Research, Development and Innovation (IRDI), International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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School of Medicine, International Medical University, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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School of Health Sciences, International Medical University, 126, Jalan Jalil Perkasa 19, Bukit Jalil, Kuala Lumpur 57000, Malaysia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vivian Hsiu-Chuan Liao
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020496
Received: 24 January 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2021 / Accepted: 13 February 2021 / Published: 16 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanoparticles in the Environment and Nanotoxicology)
Plastics have enormous impacts to every aspect of daily life including technology, medicine and treatments, and domestic appliances. Most of the used plastics are thrown away by consumers after a single use, which has become a huge environmental problem as they will end up in landfill, oceans and other waterways. These plastics are discarded in vast numbers each day, and the breaking down of the plastics from micro- to nano-sizes has led to worries about how toxic these plastics are to the environment and humans. While, there are several earlier studies reported the effects of micro- and nano-plastics have on the environment, there is scant research into their impact on the human body at subcellular or molecular levels. In particular, the potential of how nano-plastics move through the gut, lungs and skin epithelia in causing systemic exposure has not been examined thoroughly. This review explores thoroughly on how nanoplastics are created, how they behave/breakdown within the environment, levels of toxicity and pollution of these nanoplastics, and the possible health impacts on humans, as well as suggestions for additional research. This paper aims to inspire future studies into core elements of micro- and nano-plastics, the biological reactions caused by their specific and unusual qualities. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoplastics; nanotoxicity; nanomaterials; toxicology; plastics; health impacts; environmental impacts; pollution nanoplastics; nanotoxicity; nanomaterials; toxicology; plastics; health impacts; environmental impacts; pollution
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yee, M.S.-L.; Hii, L.-W.; Looi, C.K.; Lim, W.-M.; Wong, S.-F.; Kok, Y.-Y.; Tan, B.-K.; Wong, C.-Y.; Leong, C.-O. Impact of Microplastics and Nanoplastics on Human Health. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020496

AMA Style

Yee MS-L, Hii L-W, Looi CK, Lim W-M, Wong S-F, Kok Y-Y, Tan B-K, Wong C-Y, Leong C-O. Impact of Microplastics and Nanoplastics on Human Health. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(2):496. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020496

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yee, Maxine S.-L., Ling-Wei Hii, Chin K. Looi, Wei-Meng Lim, Shew-Fung Wong, Yih-Yih Kok, Boon-Keat Tan, Chiew-Yen Wong, and Chee-Onn Leong. 2021. "Impact of Microplastics and Nanoplastics on Human Health" Nanomaterials 11, no. 2: 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11020496

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