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Review

Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Caries Prevention: A Review

Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 999077, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Alexandru Mihai Grumezescu and Oana Gherasim
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(12), 3446; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123446
Received: 25 November 2021 / Revised: 8 December 2021 / Accepted: 13 December 2021 / Published: 20 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metallic and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles and Their Applications)
Nanoparticles based on metal and metallic oxide have become a novel trend for dental use as they interfere with bacterial metabolism and prevent biofilm formation. Metal and metal oxide nanoparticles demonstrate significant antimicrobial activity by metal ion release, oxidative stress induction and non-oxidative mechanisms. Silver, zinc, titanium, copper, and magnesium ions have been used to develop metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. In addition, fluoride has been used to functionalise the metal and metal oxide nanoparticles. The fluoride-functionalised nanoparticles show fluoride-releasing properties that enhance apatite formation, promote remineralisation, and inhibit demineralisation of enamel and dentine. The particles’ nanoscopic size increases their surface-to-volume ratio and bioavailability. The increased surface area facilitates their mechanical bond with tooth tissue. Therefore, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles have been incorporated in dental materials to strengthen the mechanical properties of the materials and to prevent caries development. Another advantage of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles is their easily scalable production. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in caries prevention. The study reviews their effects on dental materials regarding antibacterial, remineralising, aesthetic, and mechanical properties. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal; nanoparticles; caries metal; nanoparticles; caries
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nizami, M.Z.I.; Xu, V.W.; Yin, I.X.; Yu, O.Y.; Chu, C.-H. Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Caries Prevention: A Review. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 3446. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123446

AMA Style

Nizami MZI, Xu VW, Yin IX, Yu OY, Chu C-H. Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Caries Prevention: A Review. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(12):3446. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123446

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nizami, Mohammed Z.I., Veena W. Xu, Iris X. Yin, Ollie Y. Yu, and Chun-Hung Chu. 2021. "Metal and Metal Oxide Nanoparticles in Caries Prevention: A Review" Nanomaterials 11, no. 12: 3446. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11123446

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