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Open AccessArticle

Polyglycerol Ester-Based Low Energy Nanoemulsions with Red Raspberry Seed Oil and Fruit Extracts: Formulation Development toward Effective In Vitro/In Vivo Bioperformance

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Department of Pharmaceutical Technology and Cosmetology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 11121 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Physical Chemistry and Instrumental Methods, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 11121 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Nis, 18000 Nis, Serbia
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Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 11121 Belgrade, Serbia
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Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Department of Microelectronic Technologies, Institute of Chemistry, Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Cosmetic Science Research Group, London College of Fashion, University of the Arts London, London WC1V 7EY, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(1), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010217
Received: 13 December 2020 / Revised: 11 January 2021 / Accepted: 12 January 2021 / Published: 15 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanodispersions Based on Biocompatibility)
This study focuses on the development of biocompatible oil-in-water (O/W) nanoemulsions based on polyglycerol esters, as promising carriers for natural actives: red raspberry seed oil—RO and hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry—RE and French oak—FE. Nanoemulsions were obtained via phase inversion composition (PIC) method at room temperature by dilution of microemulsion phase, confirmed by visual appearance, percentage of transmittance, microscopic, rheological and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) investigations. The results have shown that the basic RO-loaded formulation could be further enriched with hydro-glycolic fruit extracts from red raspberry or French oak, while keeping a semi-transparent appearance due to the fine droplet size (Z-ave: 50 to 70 nm, PDI value ≤ 0.1). The highest antioxidant activity (~92% inhibition of the DPPH radical) was achieved in the formulation containing both lipophilic (RO) and hydrophilic antioxidants (FE), due to their synergistic effect. The nanoemulsion carrier significantly increased the selective cytotoxic effect of RO towards malignant melanoma (Fem-X) cells, compared to normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT). In vivo study on human volunteers showed satisfactory safety profiles and significant improvement in skin hydration during 2 h after application for all nanoemulsions. Therefore, polyglycerol ester-based nanoemulsions can be promoted as effective carriers for red raspberry seed oil and/or hydro-glycolic fruit extracts in topical formulations intended for skin protection and hydration. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoemulsion; phase inversion composition (PIC); biocompatible; low energy; polyglycerol ester; red raspberry seed oil; French oak fruit extract; antioxidant activity; MTT; skin hydration nanoemulsion; phase inversion composition (PIC); biocompatible; low energy; polyglycerol ester; red raspberry seed oil; French oak fruit extract; antioxidant activity; MTT; skin hydration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gledovic, A.; Janosevic Lezaic, A.; Nikolic, I.; Tasic-Kostov, M.; Antic-Stankovic, J.; Krstonosic, V.; Randjelovic, D.; Bozic, D.; Ilic, D.; Tamburic, S.; Savic, S. Polyglycerol Ester-Based Low Energy Nanoemulsions with Red Raspberry Seed Oil and Fruit Extracts: Formulation Development toward Effective In Vitro/In Vivo Bioperformance. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010217

AMA Style

Gledovic A, Janosevic Lezaic A, Nikolic I, Tasic-Kostov M, Antic-Stankovic J, Krstonosic V, Randjelovic D, Bozic D, Ilic D, Tamburic S, Savic S. Polyglycerol Ester-Based Low Energy Nanoemulsions with Red Raspberry Seed Oil and Fruit Extracts: Formulation Development toward Effective In Vitro/In Vivo Bioperformance. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(1):217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010217

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gledovic, Ana; Janosevic Lezaic, Aleksandra; Nikolic, Ines; Tasic-Kostov, Marija; Antic-Stankovic, Jelena; Krstonosic, Veljko; Randjelovic, Danijela; Bozic, Dragana; Ilic, Dusan; Tamburic, Slobodanka; Savic, Snezana. 2021. "Polyglycerol Ester-Based Low Energy Nanoemulsions with Red Raspberry Seed Oil and Fruit Extracts: Formulation Development toward Effective In Vitro/In Vivo Bioperformance" Nanomaterials 11, no. 1: 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11010217

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