This review summarizes the present knowledge on the toxicity of copper and copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) to various fish species. In previous decades, the excessive usage of metal and metallic nanoparticles has increased significantly, increasing the probability of the accumulation and discharge of metals in various trophic levels of the environment. Due to these concerns, it is important to understand the toxicity mechanisms of metals and metallic nanoparticles before they lead to unhealthy effects on human health. In this review paper, we specifically focus on the effect of metal copper and CuNPs on different fish organs under different physiochemical parameters of various water bodies. Nowadays, different forms of copper have distinctive and specific usages, e.g., copper sulfate is a well-established pesticide which is used to control the growth of algae in lakes and ponds. Deactivating the fungi enzymes prevents fungal spores from germinating. This process of deactivation is achieved via the free cupric ions, which are established as the most toxic forms of copper. Complexes of copper with other ligands may or may not be bioavailable for use in aquatic organisms. On the other hand, CuNPs have shown cost-effectiveness and numerous promising uses, but the toxicity and availability of copper in a nanoparticle form is largely unknown, Additionally, physiochemical factors such as the hardness of the water, alkalinity, presence of inorganic and organic ligands, levels of pH, and temperature in various different water bodies affect the toxicity caused by copper and CuNPs. However, comprehensive knowledge and data regarding the pattern of toxicity for copper metal ions and CuNPs in marine organisms is still limited. In this review, we carry out a critical analysis of the availability of the toxicological profiles of copper metal ions and CuNPs for different fishes in order to understand the toxicity mechanisms of copper and CuNPs. We believe that this review will provide valuable information on the toxicological profile of copper, which will further help in devising safe guidelines for the usage of copper and CuNPs in a sustainable manner.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited