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Open AccessArticle

Comparison between Citral and Pompia Essential Oil Loaded in Phospholipid Vesicles for the Treatment of Skin and Mucosal Infections

1
Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Parasitology, University of Valencia, Avda. V. Andrés Estellés, s/n Burjassot, Valencia 46100, Spain
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Department of Scienze della Vita e dell’Ambiente, University of Cagliari, Via Ospedale 72, Cagliari 09124, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari 07100, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(2), 286; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10020286
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 30 January 2020 / Accepted: 5 February 2020 / Published: 7 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocarriers and Targeted Drug Delivery)
Citrus species extracts are well known sources of bio-functional compounds with health-promoting effects. In particular, essential oils are known for their antibacterial activity due to the high content of terpenes. In this work, the steam-distilled essential oil from the leaves of Citrus limon var. pompia was loaded in phospholipid vesicles. The physico-chemical characteristics of the essential oil loaded vesicles were compared with those of vesicles that were loaded with citral, which is one of the most abundant terpenes of Citrus essential oils. The biocompatibility of the vesicles was assessed in vitro in human keratinocytes. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the vesicles was tested while using different bacterial strains and a yeast: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, respectively. The vesicles were small in size (~140 nm), slightly polydispersed (PI ~ 0.31), highly negatively charged (~ −73 mV), and able to incorporate high amounts of essential oil or citral (E% ~ 86%). Pompia essential oil and citral exhibited antimicrobial activity against all of the assayed microorganisms, with P. aeruginosa being the least sensitive. Citral was slightly more effective than pompia essential oil against E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans. The incorporation of citral in vesicles improved its antifungal activity against C. albicans. View Full-Text
Keywords: liposomes; pompia essential oil; citral; bacteria; yeast liposomes; pompia essential oil; citral; bacteria; yeast
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MDPI and ACS Style

Usach, I.; Margarucci, E.; Manca, M.L.; Caddeo, C.; Aroffu, M.; Petretto, G.L.; Manconi, M.; Peris, J.-E. Comparison between Citral and Pompia Essential Oil Loaded in Phospholipid Vesicles for the Treatment of Skin and Mucosal Infections. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 286.

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