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J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb9010020

Antimicrobial Monomers for Polymeric Dental Restoratives: Cytotoxicity and Physicochemical Properties

Volpe Research Center, ADA Foundation, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, USA
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Received: 19 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 22 February 2018 / Published: 27 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dental Implant Materials and Biomaterials)
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Abstract

A trend for the next generation of polymeric dental restoratives is to incorporate multifunctional capabilities to regulate microbial growth and remineralize tooth surfaces. Polymerizable 2-(methacryloyloxy)-N-(2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyl)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium bromide (IDMA1) and N,N′-([1,1′-biphenyl]-2,2′-diylbis(methylene))bis(2-(methacryloyloxy)-N,N-dimethylethan-1-aminium) bromide (IDMA2), intended for utilization in bi-functional antimicrobial and remineralizing composites, were synthesized, purified with an ethanol-diethyl ether-hexane solvent system, and validated by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. When incorporated into light-curable urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA)/polyethylene glycol-extended UDMA (PEG-U)/ethyl 2-(hydroxymethyl)acrylate (EHMA) (assigned UPE) resins, IDMAs did not affect the overall resins’ hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity balance (water contact angle: 60.8–65.5°). The attained degrees of vinyl conversion (DVC) were consistently higher in both IDMA-containing copolymers and their amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites (up to 5% and 20%, respectively) reaching 92.5% in IDMA2 formulations. Notably, these high DVCs values were attained without an excessive increase in polymerization stress. The observed reduction in biaxial flexure strength of UPE-IDMA ACP composites should not prevent further evaluation of these materials as multifunctional Class V restoratives. In direct contact with human gingival fibroblasts, at biologically relevant concentrations, IDMAs did not adversely affect cell viability or their metabolic activity. Ion release from the composites was indicative of their strong remineralization potential. The above, early-phase biocompatibility and physicochemical tests justify further evaluation of these experimental materials to identify formulation(s) suitable for clinical testing. Successful completion is expected to yield a new class of restoratives with well-controlled bio-function, which will physicochemically, mechanically, and biologically outperform the conventional Class V restoratives. View Full-Text
Keywords: dental materials; amorphous calcium phosphate; antimicrobial methacrylate monomers; antimicrobial and remineralizing composites dental materials; amorphous calcium phosphate; antimicrobial methacrylate monomers; antimicrobial and remineralizing composites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Bienek, D.R.; Frukhtbeyn, S.A.; Giuseppetti, A.A.; Okeke, U.C.; Skrtic, D. Antimicrobial Monomers for Polymeric Dental Restoratives: Cytotoxicity and Physicochemical Properties. J. Funct. Biomater. 2018, 9, 20.

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