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Open AccessArticle

Early Polylysine Release from Dental Composites and Its Effects on Planktonic Streptococcus mutans Growth

1
Unit of Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Craniofacial Growth and Development, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London WC1X 8LD, UK
2
Division of Microbial Diseases, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London WC1X 8LD, UK
3
Department of Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London WC1X 8LD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030053
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 23 July 2020 / Accepted: 24 July 2020 / Published: 27 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
The study aim was to assess the effect of incorporating polylysine (PLS) filler at different mass fractions (0.5, 1 and 2 wt%) on PLS release and Streptococcus mutans planktonic growth. Composite containing PLS mass and volume change and PLS release upon water immersion were assessed gravimetrically and via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. Disc effects on bacterial counts in broth initially containing 8 × 105 versus 8 × 106 CFU/mL Streptococcus mutans UA159 were determined after 24 h. Survival of sedimented bacteria after 72 h was determined following LIVE/DEAD staining of composite surfaces using confocal microscopy. Water sorption-induced mass change at two months increased from 0.7 to 1.7% with increasing PLS concentration. Average volume increases were 2.3% at two months whilst polylysine release levelled at 4% at 3 weeks irrespective of composite PLS level. Early percentage PLS release, however, was faster with higher composite content. With 0.5, 1 and 2% polylysine initially in the composite filler phase, 24-h PLS release into 1 mL of water yielded 8, 25 and 93 ppm respectively. With initial bacterial counts of 8 × 105 CFU/mL, this PLS release reduced 24-h bacterial counts from 109 down to 108, 107 and 102 CFU/mL respectively. With a high initial inoculum, 24-h bacterial counts were 109 with 0, 0.5 or 1% PLS and 107 with 2% PLS. As the PLS composite content was raised, the ratio of dead to live sedimented bacteria increased. The antibacterial action of the experimental composites could reduce residual bacteria remaining following minimally invasive tooth restorations. View Full-Text
Keywords: polylysine; antibacterial; dental composites polylysine; antibacterial; dental composites
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lygidakis, N.N.; Allan, E.; Xia, W.; Ashley, P.F.; Young, A.M. Early Polylysine Release from Dental Composites and Its Effects on Planktonic Streptococcus mutans Growth. J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11, 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030053

AMA Style

Lygidakis NN, Allan E, Xia W, Ashley PF, Young AM. Early Polylysine Release from Dental Composites and Its Effects on Planktonic Streptococcus mutans Growth. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2020; 11(3):53. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030053

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lygidakis, Nikos N.; Allan, Elaine; Xia, Wendy; Ashley, Paul F.; Young, Anne M. 2020. "Early Polylysine Release from Dental Composites and Its Effects on Planktonic Streptococcus mutans Growth" J. Funct. Biomater. 11, no. 3: 53. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11030053

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