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Article

Time-Transient Effects of Silver and Copper in the Porous Titanium Dioxide Layer on Antibacterial Properties

1
Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 1-5-45 Yushima, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8549, Japan
3
Institute of Biomaterials and Bioengineering, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, 2-3-10 Kanda-Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-0062, Japan
4
Research Center for Structural Materials, National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047, Japan
5
Department of Anatomy, School of Dentistry, Aichi Gakuin University, 1-100 Kusumoto, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8650, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020044
Received: 23 May 2020 / Revised: 18 June 2020 / Accepted: 19 June 2020 / Published: 22 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bacterial Interactions with Dental and Medical Materials)
Recently, silver (Ag) and copper (Cu) have been incorporated into a titanium (Ti) surface to realize their antibacterial property. This study investigated both the durability of the antibacterial effect and the surface change of the Ag- and Cu-incorporated porous titanium dioxide (TiO2) layer. Ag- and Cu-incorporated TiO2 layers were formed by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment using the electrolyte with Ag and Cu ions. Ag- and Cu-incorporated specimens were incubated in saline during a period of 0–28 days. The changes in both the concentrations and chemical states of the Ag and Cu were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The durability of the antibacterial effects against Escherichia coli (E. coli) were evaluated by the international organization for standardization (ISO) method. As a result, the Ag- and Cu-incorporated porous TiO2 layers were formed on a Ti surface by MAO. The chemical state of Ag changed from Ag2O to metallic Ag, whilst that of Cu did not change by incubation in saline for up to 28 days. Cu existed as a stable Cu2O compound in the TiO2 layer during the 28 days of incubation in saline. The concentrations of Ag and Cu were dramatically decreased by incubation for up to 7 days, and remained a slight amount until 28 days. The antibacterial effect of Ag-incorporated specimens diminished, and that of Cu was maintained even after incubation in saline. Our study suggests the importance of the time-transient effects of Ag and Cu on develop their antibacterial effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibacterial; surface modification; coatings; implant; biofilm; silver; copper antibacterial; surface modification; coatings; implant; biofilm; silver; copper
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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimabukuro, M.; Hiji, A.; Manaka, T.; Nozaki, K.; Chen, P.; Ashida, M.; Tsutsumi, Y.; Nagai, A.; Hanawa, T. Time-Transient Effects of Silver and Copper in the Porous Titanium Dioxide Layer on Antibacterial Properties. J. Funct. Biomater. 2020, 11, 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020044

AMA Style

Shimabukuro M, Hiji A, Manaka T, Nozaki K, Chen P, Ashida M, Tsutsumi Y, Nagai A, Hanawa T. Time-Transient Effects of Silver and Copper in the Porous Titanium Dioxide Layer on Antibacterial Properties. Journal of Functional Biomaterials. 2020; 11(2):44. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020044

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimabukuro, Masaya, Akari Hiji, Tomoyo Manaka, Kosuke Nozaki, Peng Chen, Maki Ashida, Yusuke Tsutsumi, Akiko Nagai, and Takao Hanawa. 2020. "Time-Transient Effects of Silver and Copper in the Porous Titanium Dioxide Layer on Antibacterial Properties" Journal of Functional Biomaterials 11, no. 2: 44. https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb11020044

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