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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Bi2O3 and ZrO2 Radiopacifiers on the Early Hydration and C–S–H Gel Structure of White Portland Cement

by Qiu Li 1 and Nichola J. Coleman 2,*
1
State Key Laboratory of Silicate Materials for Architectures, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070, China
2
Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich, Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(4), 46; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10040046
Received: 4 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 14 October 2019 / Published: 18 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endodontic Biomaterials)
Bismuth oxide (monoclinic α-Bi2O3) and zirconium oxide (monoclinic ZrO2) are the most popular radiopacifiers in commercial Portland cement-based endodontic restoratives, yet their effects on the setting and hydration reactions are not fully understood. This study compares the impact of 20 wt.% of Bi2O3 or ZrO2 on the early hydration reactions and C–S–H gel structure of white Portland cement (WPC). Cement paste samples were hydrated at 37.5 °C prior to analysis by 29Si and 27Al magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3 h and 24 h, and transmission electron microscopy at 3 h. Initial and final setting times were determined using a Vicat apparatus and reaction kinetics were monitored by isothermal conduction calorimetry. Bi2O3 was found to prolong initial and final setting times and retard the degree of hydration by 32% at 24 h. Heat evolution during the acceleration and deceleration phases of the hydration process was reduced and the exotherm arising from renewed ettringite formation was delayed and diminished in the presence of Bi2O3. Conversely, ZrO2 had no significant impact on either setting time; although, it accelerated hydration by 23% within 24 h. Increases in the mean silicate chain length and the extent of aluminum substitution in the C–S–H gel were observed in the presence of both radiopacifying agents after 24 h relative to those of the unblended WPC. The Bi2O3 and ZrO2 particles remained intact within the cement matrix and neither bismuth nor zirconium was chemically incorporated in the hydration products. View Full-Text
Keywords: calcium silicate cement; endodontic bioceramic; Bi2O3; ZrO2; cement hydration; C–S–H gel; magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; calorimetry; filler effect calcium silicate cement; endodontic bioceramic; Bi2O3; ZrO2; cement hydration; C–S–H gel; magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; calorimetry; filler effect
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Li, Q.; Coleman, N.J. Impact of Bi2O3 and ZrO2 Radiopacifiers on the Early Hydration and C–S–H Gel Structure of White Portland Cement. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 46.

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