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Open AccessArticle

Strontium and Zinc Substitution in β-Tricalcium Phosphate: An X-ray Diffraction, Solid State NMR and ATR-FTIR Study

1
Department of Chemistry “Giacomo Ciamician”, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
2
ISOF-CNR, via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Chemistry, University of Torino, via P. Giuria 7, 10125 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(2), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10020020
Received: 27 March 2019 / Revised: 10 April 2019 / Accepted: 28 April 2019 / Published: 5 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates)
β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) is one of the most common bioceramics, widely applied in bone cements and implants. Herein we synthesized β-TCP by solid state reaction in the presence of increasing amounts of two biologically active ions, namely strontium and zinc, in order to clarify the structural modifications induced by ionic substitution. The results of X-ray diffraction analysis indicate that zinc can substitute for calcium into a β-TCP structure up to about 10 at% inducing a reduction of the cell parameters, whereas the substitution occurs up to about 80 at% in the case of strontium, which provokes a linear increase of the lattice constants, and a slight modification into a more symmetric structure. Rietveld refinements and solid-state 31P NMR spectra demonstrate that the octahedral Ca(5) is the site of β-TCP preferred by the small zinc ion. ATR-FTIR results indicate that zinc substitution provokes a disorder of β-TCP structure. At variance with the behavior of zinc, strontium completely avoids Ca(5) site even at high concentration, whereas it exhibits a clear preference for Ca(4) site. The infrared absorption bands of β-TCP show a general shift towards lower wavenumbers on increasing strontium content. Particularly significant is the shift of the infrared symmetric stretching band at 943 cm−1 due to P(1), that is the phosphate more involved in Ca(4) coordination, which further supports the occupancy preference of strontium. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-tricalcium phosphate; zinc; strontium; ionic substitutions; Rietveld refinement; solid-state NMR; ATR-FTIR β-tricalcium phosphate; zinc; strontium; ionic substitutions; Rietveld refinement; solid-state NMR; ATR-FTIR
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Boanini, E.; Gazzano, M.; Nervi, C.; Chierotti, M.R.; Rubini, K.; Gobetto, R.; Bigi, A. Strontium and Zinc Substitution in β-Tricalcium Phosphate: An X-ray Diffraction, Solid State NMR and ATR-FTIR Study. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 20.

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