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4D Printing: The Shape-Morphing in Additive Manufacturing

CEMMPRE, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Coimbra, Rua Luis Reis Santos, 3030-788 Coimbra, Portugal
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(1), 9;
Received: 7 January 2019 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 21 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
PDF [228 KB, uploaded 30 January 2019]


3D printing of polymers can now be considered as a common processing technology for the development of biomaterials. These can be constituted out of polymeric abiotic material alone or can be co-printed with living cells. However, the adaptive and shape-morphing characteristics cannot be developed with the rigid, pre-determined structures obtained by 3D printing. In order to produce functional engineered biomaterials, the dynamic properties/characteristics of the living cells must be attained. 4D printing can be envisaged as a route to achieve these goals. This paper intends to give a brief review of the pioneer 4D printing research that has been developed and to present an insight into future research in this field. View Full-Text
Keywords: 4D printing; smart materials; adaptive biomaterials; additive manufacturing 4D printing; smart materials; adaptive biomaterials; additive manufacturing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Piedade, A.P. 4D Printing: The Shape-Morphing in Additive Manufacturing. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 9.

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