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Article

Symmetries in Genetic Systems and the Concept of Geno-Logical Coding

Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 121248, Russia
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Academic Editors: Willy Susilo, Pedro C. Marijuán, Abir U. Igamberdiev and Lin Bi
Information 2017, 8(1), 2; https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010002
Received: 20 November 2016 / Revised: 19 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 25 December 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry and Information)
The genetic code of amino acid sequences in proteins does not allow understanding and modeling of inherited processes such as inborn coordinated motions of living bodies, innate principles of sensory information processing, quasi-holographic properties, etc. To be able to model these phenomena, the concept of geno-logical coding, which is connected with logical functions and Boolean algebra, is put forward. The article describes basic pieces of evidence in favor of the existence of the geno-logical code, which exists in p­arallel with the known genetic code of amino acid sequences but which serves for transferring inherited processes along chains of generations. These pieces of evidence have been received due to the analysis of symmetries in structures of molecular-genetic systems. The analysis has revealed a close connection of the genetic system with dyadic groups of binary numbers and with other mathematical objects, which are related with dyadic groups: Walsh functions (which are algebraic characters of dyadic groups), bit-reversal permutations, logical holography, etc. These results provide a new approach for mathematical modeling of genetic structures, which uses known mathematical formalisms from technological fields of noise-immunity coding of information, binary analysis, logical holography, and digital devices of artificial intellect. Some opportunities for a development of algebraic-logical biology are opened. View Full-Text
Keywords: genetic code; geno-logical code; symmetry; inherited processes; dyadic group; Walsh functions; Hadamard matrices; logical holography; bit-reversal permutations; spectral logic genetic code; geno-logical code; symmetry; inherited processes; dyadic group; Walsh functions; Hadamard matrices; logical holography; bit-reversal permutations; spectral logic
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MDPI and ACS Style

Petoukhov, S.V.; Petukhova, E.S. Symmetries in Genetic Systems and the Concept of Geno-Logical Coding. Information 2017, 8, 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010002

AMA Style

Petoukhov SV, Petukhova ES. Symmetries in Genetic Systems and the Concept of Geno-Logical Coding. Information. 2017; 8(1):2. https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010002

Chicago/Turabian Style

Petoukhov, Sergey V., and Elena S. Petukhova 2017. "Symmetries in Genetic Systems and the Concept of Geno-Logical Coding" Information 8, no. 1: 2. https://doi.org/10.3390/info8010002

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