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Open AccessReview

Review of the Augmented Reality Systems for Shoulder Rehabilitation

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EndoCAS Center, Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Information Engineering, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Department of Computer Science, Kettering University, Flint, MI 48504, USA
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Department of Translational Research and of New Surgical and Medical Technologies, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Center for Rehabilitative Medicine “Sport and Anatomy”, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa, Italy
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Information 2019, 10(5), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/info10050154
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 23 April 2019 / Accepted: 23 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wearable Augmented and Mixed Reality Applications)
Literature shows an increasing interest for the development of augmented reality (AR) applications in several fields, including rehabilitation. Current studies show the need for new rehabilitation tools for upper extremity, since traditional interventions are less effective than in other body regions. This review aims at: Studying to what extent AR applications are used in shoulder rehabilitation, examining wearable/non-wearable technologies employed, and investigating the evidence supporting AR effectiveness. Nine AR systems were identified and analyzed in terms of: Tracking methods, visualization technologies, integrated feedback, rehabilitation setting, and clinical evaluation. Our findings show that all these systems utilize vision-based registration, mainly with wearable marker-based tracking, and spatial displays. No system uses head-mounted displays, and only one system (11%) integrates a wearable interface (for tactile feedback). Three systems (33%) provide only visual feedback; 66% present visual-audio feedback, and only 33% of these provide visual-audio feedback, 22% visual-audio with biofeedback, and 11% visual-audio with haptic feedback. Moreover, several systems (44%) are designed primarily for home settings. Three systems (33%) have been successfully evaluated in clinical trials with more than 10 patients, showing advantages over traditional rehabilitation methods. Further clinical studies are needed to generalize the obtained findings, supporting the effectiveness of the AR applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: augmented reality; rehabilitation; shoulder disorders augmented reality; rehabilitation; shoulder disorders
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Viglialoro, R.M.; Condino, S.; Turini, G.; Carbone, M.; Ferrari, V.; Gesi, M. Review of the Augmented Reality Systems for Shoulder Rehabilitation. Information 2019, 10, 154.

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