With the high integration of smart grid information and physical systems, the security of information systems must affect the safe and stable operation of physical systems. Risk assessment is an effectual means to objectively evaluate the information security threats of the smart grid. However, the existing risk assessment methods are aim at solving the threat of security risks in communication networks and information systems in the smart grid, but there is no in-depth study on how the spread of information security risks between information systems and physical systems in the smart grid. Therefore, based on the traditional infectious disease transmission theory, the information security risk propagation model based on the Susceptible–Exposed–Infected–Recovered (SEIR) infectious disease model for smart grid (ISRP-SEIRIDM) is proposed in this paper. In ISRP-SEIRIDM, we analyze the information interaction between information collection devices and define the connection of nature and the security risks between the information collection devices in the smart grid. At the same time, we also study the impact of the number of information acquisition devices and information interaction capabilities of these devices on the speed of security risk transmission between information systems and physics systems in the smart grid and the maximum risk range. Experimental results show that the risk propagation range can be significantly reduced by optimizing the data interaction capability and information transmission path between information collection devices in the smart grid; when a probability from a susceptible state to an exposed state reduces by 0.15, the maximum spread and average spread of security risk will be reduced by 7% and 1.96%, respectively.
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