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Religions, Volume 5, Issue 4 (December 2014) – 15 articles , Pages 948-1187

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Open AccessArticle
Mind, Body and Spirit in Basket Divination: An Integrative Way of Knowing
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1175-1187; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041175 - 17 Dec 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2823
Abstract
The statements of researchers on the topic of basket divination and the statements of basket diviners in northwest Zambia, Africa, do not fully agree. While researchers rightly stress the importance of observation, analysis and interpretation in basket divination, going so far as to [...] Read more.
The statements of researchers on the topic of basket divination and the statements of basket diviners in northwest Zambia, Africa, do not fully agree. While researchers rightly stress the importance of observation, analysis and interpretation in basket divination, going so far as to describe diviners as scientists, they fail to recognize that divination is not an abstract, disembodied undertaking. Truthful knowledge is not flushed out of the diviner’s mind as a set of theoretical propositions; it is instead delivered by an ancestral spirit that becomes objectified in three symbiotic forms: physical pain, configurations of material objects laid out inside a basket, and the diviner’s translation of those meaningful configurations into words. In basket divination, human bodies, artifacts, words, and spirits work together in symbiosis. Knowing is a spiritual, intellectual, and embodied undertaking. The challenge then is to conceptualize basket divination as an integrative way of knowing in such a way that one does not fail to recognize either the neurobiological substrate that we all share as humans or those others facets—such as the numen—without which basket divination as a cultural practice would cease to exist. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Body and Religion)
Open AccessArticle
The Spiritual Care Team: Enabling the Practice of Whole Person Medicine
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1161-1174; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041161 - 09 Dec 2014
Cited by 27 | Viewed by 4712
Abstract
We will soon be piloting a project titled “Integrating Spirituality into Patient Care” that will form “spiritual care teams” to assess and address patients’ spiritual needs in physician outpatient practices within Adventist Health System, the largest Protestant healthcare system in the United States. [...] Read more.
We will soon be piloting a project titled “Integrating Spirituality into Patient Care” that will form “spiritual care teams” to assess and address patients’ spiritual needs in physician outpatient practices within Adventist Health System, the largest Protestant healthcare system in the United States. This paper describes the goals, the rationale, and the structure of the spiritual care teams that will soon be implemented, and discusses the barriers to providing spiritual care that health professionals are likely to encounter. Spiritual care teams may operate in an outpatient or an inpatient setting, and their purpose is to provide health professionals with resources necessary to practice whole person healthcare that includes spiritual care. We believe that this project will serve as a model for faith-based health systems seeking to visibly demonstrate their mission in a way that makes them unique and expresses their values. Not only does this model have the potential to be cost-effective, but also the capacity to increase the quality of patient care and the satisfaction that health professionals derive from providing care. If successful, this model could spread beyond faith-based systems to secular systems as well both in the U.S. and worldwide. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Characteristics of Extraordinary Religious Phenomena Accompanying the Christian Religious Experience—Reflection
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1146-1160; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041146 - 09 Dec 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2418
Abstract
This paper presents an attempt to discuss in more detail the question of understanding of religious experience in the context of the Christian religion, as well as to show the characteristic extraordinary religious experiences accompanying many people during that experience. The question of [...] Read more.
This paper presents an attempt to discuss in more detail the question of understanding of religious experience in the context of the Christian religion, as well as to show the characteristic extraordinary religious experiences accompanying many people during that experience. The question of experiences evoked by psychedelic drugs, such as the issue of a vision and chemical ecstasy, are not discussed here, and instead the author has chosen to present only typical phenomena accompanying religious experience, which are caused by God’s doing, like visions, ecstasy, glossolalia (speaking in tongues) or stigmata. The paper also presents their role and contribution to the process of a human being’s religious development. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Religious Coping, Social Support and Subjective Severity as Predictors of Posttraumatic Growth in People Affected by the Earthquake in Chile on 27/2/2010
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1132-1145; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041132 - 02 Dec 2014
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 2951
Abstract
The aim of this research is to study the impact of religious coping, social support and subjective severity on Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) in people who lost their homes after the earthquake in Chile in 2010 and who now live in transitional shelters. One [...] Read more.
The aim of this research is to study the impact of religious coping, social support and subjective severity on Posttraumatic Growth (PTG) in people who lost their homes after the earthquake in Chile in 2010 and who now live in transitional shelters. One hundred sixteen adult men and women were evaluated using a subjective severity scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI), the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) scale of social support and the Brief RCOPE scale of religious coping. The multiple linear regression analysis shows that social support and positive religious coping have an impact on PTG. On using a bootstrap estimate, it was found that positive religious coping fully mediates the relationship between subjective severity and PTG. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Marital Naming Plans among Students at Four Evangelical Colleges
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1116-1131; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041116 - 21 Nov 2014
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4189
Abstract
Despite increasingly egalitarian gender roles in the United States, when the wedding bells ring for heterosexual couples, husband and wife still commonly emerge sharing the man’s last name. Largely missing from previous studies of marital name change is the influence of religion. We [...] Read more.
Despite increasingly egalitarian gender roles in the United States, when the wedding bells ring for heterosexual couples, husband and wife still commonly emerge sharing the man’s last name. Largely missing from previous studies of marital name change is the influence of religion. We examine the marital naming plans of 199 students from four Evangelical colleges. Nearly all these students planned to marry and more than 80% planned to follow the traditional naming pattern for their gender. Bivariate correlations and logistic regression models reveal that private prayer and more literal views of the Bible correspond to plans for a traditional marital surname. Yet, only a small minority of students evoked religious language to justify their surname choice. Gender roles, identity, and tradition were dominant themes in their explanations. Whether recognized or not, personal religiosity and the model of marriage cultivated in religious families guide the marital naming intentions of Evangelical students. Thus, religion operates as an invisible influence shaping ideals of marriage and family within Evangelical subculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Studies in the Sociology of Religion) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle
Spiritual Distress in Bereavement: Evolution of a Research Program
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1087-1115; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041087 - 12 Nov 2014
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3085
Abstract
Many mourners turn to their spiritual beliefs and traditions when confronted by the death of a loved one. However, prior studies have either focused primarily on the benefits of faith following loss or studied spiritual struggle outside the context of bereavement. Moreover, scales [...] Read more.
Many mourners turn to their spiritual beliefs and traditions when confronted by the death of a loved one. However, prior studies have either focused primarily on the benefits of faith following loss or studied spiritual struggle outside the context of bereavement. Moreover, scales to measure bereavement-related crises of faith and interventions specifically designed for spiritually inclined, distressed grievers are virtually non-existent. Our program of research, which to date has consisted of working with Christian grievers and is outlined below, elucidates complicated spiritual grief (CSG)—a spiritual crisis following the loss of a loved one. For example, our longitudinal examination of 46 African American homicide survivors established the relation between positive religious coping, CSG, and complicated grief (CG), to clarify whether religious coping more strongly predicted bereavement distress or vice versa, with a follow-up study that determined the relation between religious coping and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We replicated and expanded these findings with a diverse sample of 150 grievers to explore the complex relation between CSG, CG, and meaning making in a comparison study of mourners who had experienced traumatic-versus natural death losses. In a companion study, we qualitatively analyzed 84 grievers’ narratives and interviewed a 5-member focus group to capture and learn from their firsthand experiences of spiritual distress. To close the gap in terms of CSG assessment, we also developed and validated the Inventory of Complicated Spiritual Grief (ICSG). Currently, our ongoing CSG investigation extends in several directions: first, to a sample of family members anticipating the loss of their hospice-eligible loved one in palliative care; and, second, to the development and testing of a writing-intensive intervention for newly bereaved, spiritually inclined grievers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spirituality and Health)
Open AccessArticle
From Retreat Center to Clinic to Boardroom? Perils and Promises of the Modern Mindfulness Movement
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1062-1086; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041062 - 06 Nov 2014
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4426
Abstract
From its venerable Buddhist roots, mindfulness training (MT) has spread rapidly across the globe in the past few decades due to its strong salutary claim, i.e., the notion that meditation practice is an efficacious means for self-improvement. However, concerns have arisen that [...] Read more.
From its venerable Buddhist roots, mindfulness training (MT) has spread rapidly across the globe in the past few decades due to its strong salutary claim, i.e., the notion that meditation practice is an efficacious means for self-improvement. However, concerns have arisen that the appropriation of MT techniques from classical Buddhist tradition into modern secular practice has diluted the benefits of these practices. The “great danger” to the movement is that inadequately adapted MT techniques, combined with unreasonable inflation of expectations regarding MT’s benefits, may undermine MT’s true potential to effect positive change in the world. And yet, these concerns can be mitigated by consideration of the salutary claim as a persistent “quality check” on MT efficacy. It is argued that scientific investigation can take an important role in delineating the necessary characteristics for fulfilling mindfulness’ salutary claim, as well as identifying contraindicated techniques and risk factors for training. By accepting that we cannot control the spread of MT into commercial domains, researchers may still work to distinguish “right” from “wrong” mindfulness through empirical study. In this way, modern science may help to realize the salutary claim and even contribute to classical Buddhist conceptions of mindfulness, advancing our understanding of how best to promote well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Science and Religion: Buddhist and Hindu Perspectives)
Open AccessArticle
The Association between Compassionate Love and Spiritual Coping with Trauma in Men and Women Living with HIV
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1050-1061; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041050 - 21 Oct 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2750
Abstract
Our ten-year study examined the association between compassionate love (CL)—other-centered love, as well as compassionate self-love, and spiritual coping (SC)—the use of spirituality (connection to a Higher Presence or God) as a means to cope with trauma, and gender differences in 177 people [...] Read more.
Our ten-year study examined the association between compassionate love (CL)—other-centered love, as well as compassionate self-love, and spiritual coping (SC)—the use of spirituality (connection to a Higher Presence or God) as a means to cope with trauma, and gender differences in 177 people living with HIV (PLWH). In a secondary data analysis of six-monthly interviews/essays, we coded five criteria of CL and rated the benefit of CL giving, receiving and self for the recipient. Synergistically, we rated longitudinal SC based on coding of 18 coping strategies. Overall, mean CL towards self was very high, followed by CL receiving and giving, while mean SC was moderately high. Women, in comparison to men, perceived higher benefit from SC and giving CL to others. Overall, CL towards self had the strongest association with SC, more pronounced in women than in men. Beyond gender, only CL for the self was a significant predictor of SC. Although there was a moderate association between SC and the perceived benefit from giving CL, after controlling for gender, this association was present in men only. Conversely, receiving CL from others yields a stronger association with SC in women than in men. Women perceived to benefit significantly more from SC and giving CL to others compared to men, whereas no gender differences were found on perceiving benefit from receiving CL from others or oneself. In conclusion, although women perceive more benefit from giving CL to others than men, this does not explain the higher benefit from SC among women. Ultimately, both men and women perceive to benefit more from SC the more they exhibit CL towards self and thus spiritual counseling should keep the importance of the balance between CL towards self and others in mind. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spirituality and Health)
Open AccessArticle
Walking in Balance: Native American Recovery Programmes
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1037-1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041037 - 20 Oct 2014
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3643
Abstract
This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of [...] Read more.
This article reviews Native American ritual practices, frameworks and key concepts employed by several substance abuse treatments centres in the U.S. and Canada. It also examines the way Alcoholics Anonymous’ Twelve Step programme has been modified to attract and serve the needs of Native Americans and First Nations and its potential impact on the ritual practices. Native concepts of wellbeing are highlighted and linked to the idea of living in “balance”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion & Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Forms of Religious Glocalization: Orthodox Christianity in the Longue Durée
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1017-1036; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041017 - 20 Oct 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2868
Abstract
This article advocates a “glocal turn” in the religion–globalization problematic. It proposes a model of multiple glocalizations in order to analyze the historically constituted relationship between world religions and local cultures. First, the conceptual evolution from globalization to glocalization is discussed with special [...] Read more.
This article advocates a “glocal turn” in the religion–globalization problematic. It proposes a model of multiple glocalizations in order to analyze the historically constituted relationship between world religions and local cultures. First, the conceptual evolution from globalization to glocalization is discussed with special reference to the study of the religion. Second, the necessity for adopting the perspective of the longue durée with regard to the study of Eastern Orthodox Christianity is explained. Third, an outline of four forms of religious glocalization is proposed. Each of these forms is presented both analytically as well as through examples from the history of Eastern Christianity (from the 8th to the 21st century). It is argued that this approach offers a model for analyzing the relation between religion, culture and society that does not succumb to the Western bias inherent in the conventional narrative of western modernization and secularization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion & Globalization)
Open AccessArticle
The Relationship between Daoist Rituals and Theatrical Performance: The Case of Xianggong Tapeng in Puxian Theater
Religions 2014, 5(4), 1001-1016; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5041001 - 14 Oct 2014
Viewed by 2461
Abstract
Daoism is a traditional Chinese religion. Daoism has had a deep and pervasive impact on the lives of China’s peoples. Chinese theatrical performances were often integrated with religious activities, thereby gradually giving rise to many forms of popular drama that are deeply inflected [...] Read more.
Daoism is a traditional Chinese religion. Daoism has had a deep and pervasive impact on the lives of China’s peoples. Chinese theatrical performances were often integrated with religious activities, thereby gradually giving rise to many forms of popular drama that are deeply inflected with religious overtones. Xianggong Tapeng (相公踏棚, Xianggong stamps the shed) is one component of Puxian opera’s rites for stage cleaning that is closely linked with Daoist thought. First, Xianggong is both a theatrical spirit within Puxian opera and a member of the Daoist pantheon. Second, the lyric “luo li lian” featured in Xianggong Tapeng bears a remarkable resemblance to the two Daoist spells Yuanshuai Zhou (元帥咒, Incantation of Yuanshuai) and Xiangmo Zhou (降魔咒, Incantation for Subduing Demons). This is due to the fact that traditional Daoist verse often features phrases such as “luo li lian”. Moreover, the stage cleaning rites that are characteristic of Puxian opera share many similarities with Daoist altar purification rites. A detailed investigation and comparison reveal that Xianggong Tapeng is an adaptation of the Daoist altar purification rite to the needs of popular custom and theatrical performance. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Buddhist Approaches to Addiction Recovery
Religions 2014, 5(4), 985-1000; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5040985 - 09 Oct 2014
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3978
Abstract
The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an [...] Read more.
The Buddha recognized addiction problems and advised his followers accordingly, although this was not the primary focus of his teachings. Thailand and Japan, which have long-standing Buddhist traditions, have developed Buddhist influenced responses to addiction. With its emphasis on craving and attachment, an understanding of the workings of the mind, as well as practices to work with the mind, Buddhism lends itself as a rich resource to assist addiction recovery. The twelve step movement has been an impetus to making use of ideas and practices from Buddhism. In particular, mindfulness, has started to be used to support addiction recovery, with promising results. Exploration of other areas of Buddhism is beginning, and may provide additional benefit in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion & Addiction)
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Open AccessArticle
Addiction: Alcohol and Substance Abuse in Judaism
Religions 2014, 5(4), 972-984; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5040972 - 29 Sep 2014
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4615
Abstract
This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance [...] Read more.
This article outlines a history of rulings and beliefs about addiction in Judaism, covering alcohol and substance use and addiction, in the context of a brief account of the development of the status of addiction. It examines the prevalence of alcohol and substance use and abuse among Jews, including a discussion of some of the difficulties in estimating prevalence and of factors involved in changing patterns of use and abuse. Community beliefs and attitudes are examined, using published material and interviews with community leaders and members. Some conclusions are suggested about the impact of religious rulings and of other factors on addiction among Jews. Attention is given to the phenomenon of denial. Therapeutic practices and organisations are described. The scope for further research is identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion & Addiction)
Open AccessArticle
Dominican Chant and Dominican Identity
Religions 2014, 5(4), 961-971; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5040961 - 29 Sep 2014
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3615
Abstract
The Order of Preachers possesses a venerable chant tradition that dates back to the thirteenth century. This essay describes Dominican chant, showing how it developed as a consequence of the attitudes to the liturgy expressed in the Ancient Constitutions of the Order of [...] Read more.
The Order of Preachers possesses a venerable chant tradition that dates back to the thirteenth century. This essay describes Dominican chant, showing how it developed as a consequence of the attitudes to the liturgy expressed in the Ancient Constitutions of the Order of Preachers. These constitutions stressed that the liturgy was to be performed with careful attention to bodily posture, with a succinctness and brevity that would allow time for study and preaching, and with gradations of solemnity that would express the inner hierarchy of parts of the liturgy and of the liturgical year. After the initial development of the repertoire, Dominican chant has gone through periods of decline and revival, which are briefly traced in this article together with a consideration of the place of the chant in the contemporary practice of the Order. Throughout the last eight centuries, the chant of the Order of Preachers has played an important role in the inculcation and preservation of Dominican identity within the Order and in the lives of individual friars and sisters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Music and Spirituality) Printed Edition available
Open AccessArticle
Finding God through the Spirituality of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous
Religions 2014, 5(4), 948-960; https://doi.org/10.3390/rel5040948 - 29 Sep 2014
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4663
Abstract
The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process [...] Read more.
The 12 Step program of Alcoholics Anonymous has provided relief for individuals recovering from alcoholism for over 75 years. The key to the recovery process is a spiritual experience as the result of practicing the daily discipline of the 12 Steps, a process which evokes a psychic change sufficient to recover from this disease. Although a relatively new spiritual discipline, the 12 Step program is built upon a foundation of much older and more traditional paths to God including devotion, understanding, service and meditation. Recent research provides insights into the 12 Step program. Specifically, the path of recovery is highlighted by the reduction of resentment and the promotion of forgiveness which are key factors of recovery. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Religion & Addiction)
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