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Article

Energy-Efficient Collision Avoidance MAC Protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges

Department of Forensic Sciences, College of Criminal Justice, Naif Arab University for Security Sciences (NAUSS), Riyadh 14812, Saudi Arabia
Academic Editor: Alessandro Ridolfi
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(7), 741; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070741
Received: 9 June 2021 / Revised: 29 June 2021 / Accepted: 1 July 2021 / Published: 4 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs))
The Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocol is the most important part of any network, and is considered to be a fundamental protocol that aids in enhancing the performance of networks and communications. However, the MAC protocol’s design for underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) has introduced various challenges. This is due to long underwater acoustic propagation delay, high mobility, low available bandwidth, and high error probability. These unique acoustic channel characteristics make contention-based MAC protocols significantly more expensive than other protocol contentions. Therefore, re-transmission and collisions should effectively be managed at the MAC layer to decrease the energy cost and to enhance the network’s throughput. Consequently, handshake-based and random access-based MAC protocols do not perform as efficiently as their achieved performance in terrestrial networks. To tackle this complicated problem, this paper surveys the current collision-free MAC protocols proposed in the literature for UWSNs. We first review the unique characteristic of underwater sensor networks and its negative impact on the MAC layer. It is then followed by a discussion about the problem definition, challenges, and features associated with the design of MAC protocols in UWANs. Afterwards, currently available collision-free MAC design strategies in UWSNs are classified and investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of each design strategy along with the recent advances are then presented. Finally, we present a qualitative comparison of these strategies and also discuss some possible future directions. View Full-Text
Keywords: underwater sensor networks; medium access control; contention-free MAC protocols underwater sensor networks; medium access control; contention-free MAC protocols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alfouzan, F.A. Energy-Efficient Collision Avoidance MAC Protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070741

AMA Style

Alfouzan FA. Energy-Efficient Collision Avoidance MAC Protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(7):741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070741

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alfouzan, Faisal A. 2021. "Energy-Efficient Collision Avoidance MAC Protocols for Underwater Sensor Networks: Survey and Challenges" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 7: 741. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9070741

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