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Review

Full Duplex Physical and MAC Layer-Based Underwater Wireless Communication Systems and Protocols: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions

by 1,2,3, 1, 1,2,3,*, 1,2,3, 1,2,3 and 1,2,3
1
College of Underwater Acoustics, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
2
Acoustic Science and Technology Laboratory, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, China
3
Key Laboratory of Marine Information Acquisition and Security, Harbin Engineering University, Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, Harbin 150001, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Seyed Mohammad Ghoreyshi and Dong-Sheng Jeng
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050468
Received: 14 March 2021 / Revised: 4 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 27 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs))
Underwater wireless communication has gained a great deal of attention in the last couple of decades because of its applications in the military, industrial, and monitoring sectors. Despite the extreme physical and MAC layer difficulties, acoustics are used for various applications among the various modes of underwater communication technologies used. While significant research efforts have been made to address these issues, the bottleneck remains in achieving high bandwidth, high throughputs, and data rate. Researchers have begun to look into full duplex (FD) implementation to improve bandwidth efficiency and increase data rate and throughput. Users can send and receive data simultaneously over the FD links, maximizing bandwidth utilization and increasing throughput. As a result, we thoroughly reviewed various FD physical layered UWAC systems and MAC layered protocols for underwater communication. The various problems that the aforementioned systems and protocols have faced, as well as the solutions suggested in previous works to solve each problem, are also highlighted. Various metrics are used to compare the performance of various physical layered FD systems and FD MAC protocols. We also explore some of the open research questions in these FD-physical layered and MAC layered protocols, as well as future research directions. Based on ample information, we suggest a cross-layered architecture based on various IBFD-SI cancellations, DA-CSMA, and FD-MAC protocols. This review provides a broad view of the current FD physical and MAC layered protocols based on acoustic communication, as well as recommendations. View Full-Text
Keywords: self-interference (SI) cancellation; FD-cooperative-UWAC systems; spread spectrum (SS); FD-MAC protocols; contention-free; contention-based; hand-shaking (HS); random access; quality of service (QoS) self-interference (SI) cancellation; FD-cooperative-UWAC systems; spread spectrum (SS); FD-MAC protocols; contention-free; contention-based; hand-shaking (HS); random access; quality of service (QoS)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Songzuo, L.; Iqbal, B.; Khan, I.U.; Ahmed, N.; Qiao, G.; Zhou, F. Full Duplex Physical and MAC Layer-Based Underwater Wireless Communication Systems and Protocols: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050468

AMA Style

Songzuo L, Iqbal B, Khan IU, Ahmed N, Qiao G, Zhou F. Full Duplex Physical and MAC Layer-Based Underwater Wireless Communication Systems and Protocols: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(5):468. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050468

Chicago/Turabian Style

Songzuo, Liu, Basit Iqbal, Imran U. Khan, Niaz Ahmed, Gang Qiao, and Feng Zhou. 2021. "Full Duplex Physical and MAC Layer-Based Underwater Wireless Communication Systems and Protocols: Opportunities, Challenges, and Future Directions" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 5: 468. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9050468

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