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Article

Towards Least-CO2 Ferry Routes in the Adriatic Sea

1
Ocean Predictions and Applications Division, Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, 73100 Lecce, Italy
2
Maritime Department, University of Zadar, 23000 Zadar, Croatia
3
Formely at Centro Euro-Mediterraneo sui Cambiamenti Climatici, 73100 Lecce, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Roberto Vettor and Carlos Guedes Soares
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9(2), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020115
Received: 22 December 2020 / Revised: 13 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 23 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ship Routing)
Carbon intensity of ship emissions is a cornerstone of contemporary regulatory actions, with measurable targets of reduction being enforced in the coming decade. Short term measures to achieve them include voyage optimization. Therefore, the VISIR ship routing model was upgraded for computing least-CO2 routes depending on ocean analysis products related to waves and sea currents. The speed loss in waves and the CO2 emission rate of a medium size Ro-Pax ship were obtained from a coupled command-bridge engine-room simulator. The geographical and topological features of least-CO2 routes resulting from VISIR were characterised by means of various types of isolines. A case study in the Adriatic Sea leads to bundles of optimal routes with significant spatial diversions even on short-sea routes. The carbon intensity savings were compared to the CO2 savings, highlighting also their dependence on both route lengthening and fractional engine load. For a case study in winter, carbon intensity reductions up to 11% were computed with respect to least-distance routes between the same couple of ports of call. This is promising, as a reduction of this magnitude represents a significant amount of the carbon intensity curbing target required at International level. View Full-Text
Keywords: routing; ferry; emissions; CO2; carbon intensity; waves; currents; optimization; graph; Dijkstra routing; ferry; emissions; CO2; carbon intensity; waves; currents; optimization; graph; Dijkstra
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mannarini, G.; Carelli, L.; Orović, J.; Martinkus, C.P.; Coppini, G. Towards Least-CO2 Ferry Routes in the Adriatic Sea. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2021, 9, 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020115

AMA Style

Mannarini G, Carelli L, Orović J, Martinkus CP, Coppini G. Towards Least-CO2 Ferry Routes in the Adriatic Sea. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2021; 9(2):115. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020115

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mannarini, Gianandrea, Lorenzo Carelli, Josip Orović, Charlotte P. Martinkus, and Giovanni Coppini. 2021. "Towards Least-CO2 Ferry Routes in the Adriatic Sea" Journal of Marine Science and Engineering 9, no. 2: 115. https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse9020115

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