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Gravity-Based Foundations in the Offshore Wind Sector

Research Group on Marine, Coastal and Port Environment and other Sensitive Areas, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, E28040 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7(3), 64;
Received: 27 December 2018 / Revised: 20 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Offshore Wind Farms)
In recent years, the offshore wind industry has seen an important boost that is expected to continue in the coming years. In order for the offshore wind industry to achieve adequate development, it is essential to solve some existing uncertainties, some of which relate to foundations. These foundations are important for this type of project. As foundations represent approximately 35% of the total cost of an offshore wind project, it is essential that they receive special attention. There are different types of foundations that are used in the offshore wind industry. The most common types are steel monopiles, gravity-based structures (GBS), tripods, and jackets. However, there are some other types, such as suction caissons, tripiles, etc. For high water depths, the alternative to the previously mentioned foundations is the use of floating supports. Some offshore wind installations currently in operation have GBS-type foundations (also known as GBF: Gravity-based foundation). Although this typology has not been widely used until now, there is research that has highlighted its advantages over other types of foundation for both small and large water depth sites. There are no doubts over the importance of GBS. In fact, the offshore wind industry is trying to introduce improvements so as to turn GBF into a competitive foundation alternative, suitable for the widest ranges of water depth. The present article deals with GBS foundations. The article begins with the current state of the field, including not only the concepts of GBS constructed so far, but also other concepts that are in a less mature state of development. Furthermore, we also present a classification of this type of structure based on the GBS of offshore wind facilities that are currently in operation, as well as some reflections on future GBS alternatives. View Full-Text
Keywords: support structures; gravity-based structures; GBS; GBF support structures; gravity-based structures; GBS; GBF
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MDPI and ACS Style

Esteban, M.D.; López-Gutiérrez, J.-S.; Negro, V. Gravity-Based Foundations in the Offshore Wind Sector. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2019, 7, 64.

AMA Style

Esteban MD, López-Gutiérrez J-S, Negro V. Gravity-Based Foundations in the Offshore Wind Sector. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering. 2019; 7(3):64.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Esteban, M. D.; López-Gutiérrez, José-Santos; Negro, Vicente. 2019. "Gravity-Based Foundations in the Offshore Wind Sector" J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 7, no. 3: 64.

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