Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Assessing the Economic Impacts of Pesticide Regulations
Previous Article in Journal
22 Years of Governance Structures and Performance: What Has Been Achieved in Agrifood Chains and Beyond? A Review
Previous Article in Special Issue
Determinants of Pesticide Use in Food Crop Production in Southeastern Nigeria
Article Menu
Issue 4 (April) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Agriculture 2018, 8(4), 52;

Translocation of Endosulfan from Soil to Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer)

Department of Biological Environment, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and Environmentally Friendly Agricultural Product Safety Center, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea
Korea Biochar Research Center, O-Jeong Eco-Resilience Institute (OJERI), Division of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 27 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pesticides in Agriculture System)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2683 KB, uploaded 3 May 2018]   |  


This study was conducted to examine the translocation of highly residual agrochemical in soil, the endosulfan (total), to ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). The soil with the level of the amount of 5.0 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total) was prepared in a Wagner pot into which the seedling of ginseng was transplanted and then the specimens of ginseng (root, leaf, and stem) were collected quarterly and analyzed through GC-MS. The level of residual of endosulfan (total) in the soil has decreased from 4.28 mg kg−1 (April 2013) to 1.94 mg kg−1 (December 2014) while the level in the specimens of leaf and stem of ginseng respectively sampled according to its growth phase in June and September from 2013 and 2014 showed an increase from 0.56 mg kg−1 (June 2013) to 2.46 mg kg−1 (September 2013) and decrease from 0.29 mg kg−1 (June 2014) to 0.18 mg kg−1 (September 2014). For the case of the root of ginseng, the level of the amount of 10.77 mg kg−1 of endosulfan (total) was detected in June 2013 and then, the level has decreased to the level of 4.88 mg kg−1 in December 2014. The translocation of residual endosulfan (total) in soil to ginseng with time was identified. The amount of residuals of α-endosulfan and β-endosulfan was also decreased with time however, the ratio of endosulfan-sulfate, the main metabolite, was gradually increasing. The retention of metabolite (endosulfan-sulfate) in soil identified thereby thus suggests the potential of its translocation to plants in the case of the soils containing the residual of endosulfan (total). View Full-Text
Keywords: agrochemical; endosuflan (total); ginseng; translocation agrochemical; endosuflan (total); ginseng; translocation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Kim, J.; Saravanan, M.; Palansooriya, K.N.; Hur, J.H. Translocation of Endosulfan from Soil to Ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer). Agriculture 2018, 8, 52.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Agriculture EISSN 2077-0472 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top