Mollisols are a fundamental component of global agricultural production. In the Argentine Pampas region, 65% of the Mollisols belong to Argiudoll great group. These soils have an agricultural aptitude, with limitations given mainly by varying thickness of the top horizon A as a result of the severity of water erosion depending on its site in the landscape layered on an argillic B horizon. Over the last three decades, Pampean agriculture has been widespread because of a modern technological matrix characterized by transgenic crops, and increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides. Large changes have taken place in crop sequence composition, toward the disappearance of pastures and the rapid expansion of soybean monoculture due to the upward trend of the international price of this commodity. This review contributes to an alertness regarding the significance of the soil degradation problem, in terms of decline in soil fertility and structural condition, decrease in size of soil aggregates, surface and subsurface compaction, decrease in organic carbon content, soil and water contamination, reduction of infiltration rate and structure stability, causing an increase in water losses through surface runoff and water erosion and lost ecosystem services. Additionally, a set of sustainable land management practices and legal aspects is shown.
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