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Article

Examining Potential Environmental Consequences of Climate Change and Other Driving Forces on the Sustainability of Spanish Olive Groves under a Socio-Ecological Approach

1
Department of Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution (BEE), Teaching Unit of Ecology (UDECO), Faculty of Biological Sciences, University Complutense of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Department of Biology and Geology, University of Almería, 04120 Almería, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(11), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110509
Received: 8 October 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 27 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture)
Olive groves form characteristic Mediterranean socio-ecological landscapes, occupying more than 5 M ha; 2.5 M ha in Spain. In recent decades, traditional extensive management of olive groves has shifted to an intensive regime, with some cases of abandonment. These situations triggered negative environmental and economic externalities that led farmers to adopt increasingly multifunctional management models. From a transdisciplinary perspective, the current state of Spanish olive groves was analyzed, assessing their vulnerability to climate change as one of the main threats to their sustainability. Based on our findings and assuming that by 2050, in the Mediterranean, there will be an increase in temperature of 0.8–2.3 °C and a decrease in rainfall of up to 200 mm per year, a displacement of the distribution area of olive groves is expected towards zones of lower temperature and higher moisture. The predicted climatic conditions would increase evapotranspiration of vegetation and atmospheric CO2 emissions. Moreover, climate change will reduce the chill accumulation in olive groves, altering its flowering, fructification and crop yields. Thus, it is necessary to adopt management models that promote olive grove resilience in face of climate change, ensuring their socio-ecological sustainability. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; conservation agriculture; desertification; ecosystem services; multifunctionality; productivity; sustainability; sustainable farming; threats to olive growing climate change; conservation agriculture; desertification; ecosystem services; multifunctionality; productivity; sustainability; sustainable farming; threats to olive growing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez Sousa, A.A.; Barandica, J.M.; Aguilera, P.A.; Rescia, A.J. Examining Potential Environmental Consequences of Climate Change and Other Driving Forces on the Sustainability of Spanish Olive Groves under a Socio-Ecological Approach. Agriculture 2020, 10, 509. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110509

AMA Style

Rodríguez Sousa AA, Barandica JM, Aguilera PA, Rescia AJ. Examining Potential Environmental Consequences of Climate Change and Other Driving Forces on the Sustainability of Spanish Olive Groves under a Socio-Ecological Approach. Agriculture. 2020; 10(11):509. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110509

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez Sousa, Antonio A., Jesús M. Barandica, Pedro A. Aguilera, and Alejandro J. Rescia 2020. "Examining Potential Environmental Consequences of Climate Change and Other Driving Forces on the Sustainability of Spanish Olive Groves under a Socio-Ecological Approach" Agriculture 10, no. 11: 509. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110509

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