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Open AccessArticle

Fructosamine-3-Kinase as a Potential Treatment Option for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

1
Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Pathology, Ghent University Hospital, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
4
Department of Human Structure and Repair, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
5
Department of Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
6
Biobank, Antwerp University Hospital, 2650 Antwerp, Belgium
7
Research Foundation Flanders, 1000 Brussels, Belgium
8
Department of Head and Skin, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Both authors contributed equally.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(9), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9092869
Received: 6 August 2020 / Revised: 22 August 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 4 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vitreo-Retinal Disorders: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapies)
Age-related macular degeneration is the leading cause of blindness in the developed world. Since advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD through various lines of evidence, we investigated the potential of fructosamine-3-kinase (FN3K) in the disruption of retinal AGEs, drusenoid material and drusenoid lesions in patients with AMD. AGE-type autofluorescence was measured to evaluate the effects of FN3K on glycolaldehyde-induced AGE-modified neural porcine retinas and unmodified human neural retinas. Eye pairs from cigarette-smoke- and air-exposed mice were treated and evaluated histologically. Automated optical image analysis of human tissue sections was performed to compare control- and FN3K-treated drusen and near-infrared (NIR) microspectroscopy was performed to examine biochemical differences. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to evaluate the effect of FN3K on drusenoid deposits after treatment of post-mortem human eyes. FN3K treatment provoked a significant decrease (41%) of AGE-related autofluorescence in the AGE-modified porcine retinas. Furthermore, treatment of human neural retinas resulted in significant decreases of autofluorescence (−24%). FN3K-treated murine eyes showed less drusenoid material. Pairwise comparison of drusen on tissue sections revealed significant changes in color intensity after FN3K treatment. NIR microspectroscopy uncovered clear spectral differences in drusenoid material (Bruch’s membrane) and drusen after FN3K treatment. Ex vivo treatment strongly reduced size of subretinal drusenoid lesions on OCT imaging (up to 83%). In conclusion, our study demonstrated for the first time a potential role of FN3K in the disruption of AGE-related retinal autofluorescence, drusenoid material and drusenoid lesions in patients with AMD. View Full-Text
Keywords: age-related macular degeneration; eye diseases; fructosamine-3-kinase; glycation end products; advanced; retinal drusen; therapeutics age-related macular degeneration; eye diseases; fructosamine-3-kinase; glycation end products; advanced; retinal drusen; therapeutics
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De Bruyne, S.; Van den Broecke, C.; Vrielinck, H.; Khelifi, S.; De Wever, O.; Bracke, K.; Huizing, M.; Boston, N.; Himpe, J.; Speeckaert, M.; Vral, A.; Van Dorpe, J.; Van Aken, E.; Delanghe, J.R. Fructosamine-3-Kinase as a Potential Treatment Option for Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2869.

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