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Open AccessArticle

Interleukin-15 as a Biomarker Candidate of Rheumatoid Arthritis Development

1
Department of Pathophysiology and Immunology, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Spartanska 1, 02-637 Warsaw, Poland
2
Early Arthritis Clinic, National Institute of Geriatrics, Rheumatology and Rehabilitation, Spartanska 1, 02-637 Warsaw, Poland
3
Mazovian Center for Rheumatology and Osteoporosis, Kinowa 19a, 04-030 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1555; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051555
Received: 29 April 2020 / Revised: 15 May 2020 / Accepted: 19 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Rheumatoid Arthritis: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Therapies)
There is a need for definite diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at its earliest stages of development in order to introduce early and effective treatment. Here we assessed whether serum interleukin-15 (IL-15) can serve as a new biomarker of RA development in patients with undifferentiated arthritis (UA). Interleukin-15, IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP Abs) were measured in UA patients at inclusion. Six months later, the diagnosis was re-evaluated, and statistical analysis was performed. We found that at the UA stage, IL-15 was more prevalent in patients who progressed to RA than RF or anti-CCP Abs (83.3% vs. 61.1% and 66.7%, respectively). Interleukin-15 showed higher sensitivity (77.8%) than both autoantibodies and higher specificity (80.9%) than anti-CCP Abs in identification of UA patients who developed RA. The diagnostic utility of IL-15 was comparable to that of RF (AUC: 0.814 vs. 0.750, p > 0.05), but higher than that of anti-CCP Abs (AUC: 0.814 vs. 0.684, p = 0.04). The combined use of IL-15, RF and anti-CCP Abs yielded higher diagnostic accuracy for RA than autoantibodies determination only. Our results indicate that IL-15 can be used as a biomarker of RA development in patients with UA. View Full-Text
Keywords: undifferentiated arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; interleukin-15; biomarker; cytokines; diagnostic of RA; RA development undifferentiated arthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; interleukin-15; biomarker; cytokines; diagnostic of RA; RA development
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Kurowska, W.; Przygodzka, M.; Jakubaszek, M.; Kwiatkowska, B.; Maslinski, W. Interleukin-15 as a Biomarker Candidate of Rheumatoid Arthritis Development. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1555.

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