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Open AccessReview

Deriving Immune Modulating Drugs from Viruses—A New Class of Biologics

1
Center for Personalized Diagnostics, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
2
Center for Immunotherapy, Vaccines and Virotherapy, Biodesign Institute, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85281, USA
3
Department of Oncology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, China
4
University of Otago, Dunedin, 9054, New Zealand
5
Department of Ophthalmology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
6
Department of Pathology and Molecular Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8S4L8, Canada
7
The Department of Tumor Surgery, Second Hospital of Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730030, China
8
Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA
9
Centro de Biología Molecular Severo Ochoa (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad Autónoma de Madrid), Cantoblanco, Madrid, 28049, Spain
10
St Joseph Hospital, Dignity Health, Creighton University, Phoenix, AZ 85013, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 972; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9040972
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 31 March 2020
Viruses are widely used as a platform for the production of therapeutics. Vaccines containing live, dead and components of viruses, gene therapy vectors and oncolytic viruses are key examples of clinically-approved therapeutic uses for viruses. Despite this, the use of virus-derived proteins as natural sources for immune modulators remains in the early stages of development. Viruses have evolved complex, highly effective approaches for immune evasion. Originally developed for protection against host immune responses, viral immune-modulating proteins are extraordinarily potent, often functioning at picomolar concentrations. These complex viral intracellular parasites have “performed the R&D”, developing highly effective immune evasive strategies over millions of years. These proteins provide a new and natural source for immune-modulating therapeutics, similar in many ways to penicillin being developed from mold or streptokinase from bacteria. Virus-derived serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins), chemokine modulating proteins, complement control, inflammasome inhibition, growth factors (e.g., viral vascular endothelial growth factor) and cytokine mimics (e.g., viral interleukin 10) and/or inhibitors (e.g., tumor necrosis factor) have now been identified that target central immunological response pathways. We review here current development of virus-derived immune-modulating biologics with efficacy demonstrated in pre-clinical or clinical studies, focusing on pox and herpesviruses-derived immune-modulating therapeutics. View Full-Text
Keywords: virus; immune modulation; protein; serpin; chemokine binding protein; chemokine; growth factor; cytokine; interleukin; therapeutic; biologic virus; immune modulation; protein; serpin; chemokine binding protein; chemokine; growth factor; cytokine; interleukin; therapeutic; biologic
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Yaron, J.R.; Zhang, L.; Guo, Q.; Burgin, M.; Schutz, L.N.; Awo, E.; Wise, L.; Krause, K.L.; Ildefonso, C.J.; Kwiecien, J.M.; Juby, M.; Rahman, M.M.; Chen, H.; Moyer, R.W.; Alcami, A.; McFadden, G.; Lucas, A.R. Deriving Immune Modulating Drugs from Viruses—A New Class of Biologics. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 972.

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