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Review

Caffeine, a Risk Factor for Osteoarthritis and Longitudinal Bone Growth Inhibition

1
Musculoskeletal Pathology Group, Institute IDIS, Santiago University Clinical Hospital, SERGAS, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
2
Research Laboratory 9, Institute of Medical Research, SERGAS, Santiago University Clinical Hospital, 15706 Santiago de Compostela, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(4), 1163; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041163
Received: 10 March 2020 / Revised: 15 April 2020 / Accepted: 16 April 2020 / Published: 18 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Orthopedics)
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most common chronic rheumatic disease, is mainly characterized by a progressive degradation of the hyaline articular cartilage, which is essential for correct joint function, lubrication, and resistance. Articular cartilage disturbances lead to joint failure, pain, and disability. Hyaline cartilage is also present in the growth plate and plays a key role in longitudinal bone growth. Alterations of this cartilage by diverse pathologies have been related to longitudinal bone growth inhibition (LBGI), which leads to growth retardation. Diet can play a crucial role in processes involved in the OA and LBGI’s onset and evolution. Specifically, there is ample evidence pointing to the negative impacts of caffeine consumption on hyaline cartilage. However, its effects on these tissues have not been reviewed. Accordingly, in this review, we summarize all current knowledge in the PubMed database about caffeine catabolic effects on articular and growth plate cartilage. Specifically, we focus on the correlation between OA and LBGI with caffeine prenatal or direct exposure. Overall, there is ample evidence indicating that caffeine intake negatively affects the physiology of both articular and growth plate cartilage, increasing consumers predisposition to suffer OA and LBGI. As a result, caffeine consumption should be avoided for these pathologies.
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Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; growth plate cartilage; catabolism; long bone growth inhibition; growth retardation; caffeine osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; growth plate cartilage; catabolism; long bone growth inhibition; growth retardation; caffeine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guillán-Fresco, M.; Franco-Trepat, E.; Alonso-Pérez, A.; Jorge-Mora, A.; López-Fagúndez, M.; Pazos-Pérez, A.; Gualillo, O.; Gómez, R. Caffeine, a Risk Factor for Osteoarthritis and Longitudinal Bone Growth Inhibition. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1163. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041163

AMA Style

Guillán-Fresco M, Franco-Trepat E, Alonso-Pérez A, Jorge-Mora A, López-Fagúndez M, Pazos-Pérez A, Gualillo O, Gómez R. Caffeine, a Risk Factor for Osteoarthritis and Longitudinal Bone Growth Inhibition. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(4):1163. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guillán-Fresco, María, Eloi Franco-Trepat, Ana Alonso-Pérez, Alberto Jorge-Mora, Miriam López-Fagúndez, Andrés Pazos-Pérez, Oreste Gualillo, and Rodolfo Gómez. 2020. "Caffeine, a Risk Factor for Osteoarthritis and Longitudinal Bone Growth Inhibition" Journal of Clinical Medicine 9, no. 4: 1163. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9041163

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